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Heartwood and Tree Exudates

Series: Springer Series in Wood Science Volume: 4

By: WE Hillis (Author)


Paperback | Dec 2011 | #223453 | ISBN-13: 9783642725364
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £96.99 $119/€109 approx
Hardback | Dec 1987 | #88431 | ISBN: 3540175938
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £91.50 $112/€103 approx

About this book

Why prepare a treatise on Heartwood and Tree Exudates? Why consider both topics together? What approach should be taken in their treatment? The exudates were one of the earliest items of trade between family, tribal, and racial groupings in prehistoric times. They became used extensively as items for the manufacture of implements and as commercial goods for illumination, for cosmetic, religious and magical purposes. Later heartwood from various trees entered intra- and international trade for prestigious and religious buildings (when cedars were used), for the furniture (e.g., ebony, mahogany) of the nobility, for boats and vehicles. Consideration of their relevance to anthropology, and to the origin of technological developments in different primitive cultures, would satisfy a personal life-long interest. Attention to such a topic is urgently needed now that the development and destruction of land and forests is increasing and wiping out the traces of earlier people to meet the demands of the rapidly enlarging populations of today. The latter represents an even more urgent need. Increasingly, mankind will depend on renewable, resources produced at low energy cost. Forest products are one of these and the greater demands for them will require their growth and utilization with reduced loss and waste.


1 Introduction
1.1 Prehistoric and Ancient Use
1.2 Changing Uses of Forests

2 Definitions and Descriptions
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Sapwood
2.2.1 Definitions Sapwood Included Sapwood
2.2.2 Area of Sapwood in Log Cross-Sections
2.2.3 Variation of Area of Sapwood In a Species In Different Species Due to Age of Tree Due to Rate of Growth Due to Environment
2.2.4 Sapwood Contents
2.2.5 Discolored Sapwood
2.3 Intermediate Wood
2.3.1 Description
2.3.2 Occurrence
2.4 Transition Zone
2.4.1 Definition
2.4.2 Description
2.4.3 Occurrence Heartwood Boundary Stain
2.5 Heartwood
2.5.1 Definition
2.5.2 Description Appearance Level of Maximum Area Regular Heartwoods Irregular Heartwoods Variations in Appearance
2.6 Tree Exudates and Extracellular Materials
2.6.1 Definitions Intercellular Secretory Spaces, Cavities, and Shakes Intercellular Canals Pitch Tubules and Stones Pockets, Veins, and Streaks
2.6.2 Types of Exudate or Deposit Resin Gum Kino Latex Manna Amber Balsam Maple Sugar Crystalline Compounds
2.6.3 Rate of Formation

3 Historical Aspects
3.1 The Use of Durable Woods
3.2 Exudates
3.3 Varnishes and Lacquers
3.4 Gums
3.5 Tannins
3.6 Dyes
3.7 Perfumes
3.8 Rubber
3.9 Medicines
3.10 Lessons from History

4 Influence of Forestry Aspects
4.1 Variation of Heartwood Volume
4.1.1 Heritability
4.1.2 Effect of Growth Rate and Crown Size
4.1.3 Influence of Environment
4.1.4 Influence of Injury and Health
4.2 Formation of Exudates
4.2.1 From Bark and Wood
4.2.2 From Wood
4.2.3 Addition of Stimulants

5 Chemical Features
5.1 Water and Gases
5.2 Inorganic Compounds
5.3 Storage Substances and Intermediates
5.4 Nitrogenous Compounds
5.5 Ethylene
5.6 Type of Extractives
5.6.1 Galactans and Cyclitols
5.6.2 Terpenoids
5.6.3 Fatty Acids and Related Compounds
5.6.4 Phenolic Compounds Simple Phenols and Phenolic Acids Lignans Stilbenoids Flavonoids Quinones Polymerized Polyphenols In Different Tissues
5.7 Amount of Extractives
5.7.1 Position of Sample in the Tree
5.7.2 Effects of Rate of Growth 1ll
5.7.3 Effect of Site
5.7.4 Genetic Differences
5.7.5 Crystals
5.8 Reagents for Heartwood Detection
5.9 Exudates
5.9.1 Resin
5.9.2 Gum
5.9.3 Kino
5.9.4 Latex
5.9.5 Manna

6 Biological Features
6.1 Sapwood
6.1.1 Wood Tissues
6.1.2 Lumen Volume
6.1.3 Deposition of Extractives on Wall Surfaces
6.1.4 Impregnation of Cell Walls
6.1.5 Parenchyma Volume Cell Wall Cytology
6.1.6 Respiration and Enzymes Activity
6.2 Transition Zone
6.2.1 Seasonal Variations
6.2.2 Appearance
6.2.3 Water Content
6.2.4 Pit Aspiration and Tylosis Formation
6.2.5 Cytology of Parenchyma Cells
6.2.6 Respiration
6.2.7 Enzyme Activity
6.2.8 Formation of Extractives
6.3 Heartwood
6.3.1 Seasonal Formation
6.3.2 Appearance
6.3.3 Respiration and Enzyme Activity
6.3.4 Location of Extractives
6.4 Wound Wood and Chemically Affected Wood
6.4.1 Wound Wood
6.4.2 Paraquat-Treated Woods Biochemical Changes Due to Paraquat
6.4.3 Ethylene-Treated Wood
6.4.4 Knots
6.5 Exudates
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Resin Formation Anatomy of Pockets
6.5.3 Gum Formation
6.5.4 Kino Formation Anatomy of Veins and Pockets Chemistry of Kino Formation
6.5.5 Rubber Tapping

7 Function, Formation, and Control of Heartwood and Extractives
7.1 Function and Volume of Sapwood
7.1.1 Function
7.1.2 Volume
7.2 Types and Formation of Heartwood
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 Types of Heartwood Regular Heartwoods Other Types
7.2.3 Conclusions
7.3 Features of Heartwood and Woundwood
7.3.1 Some Theories of Heartwood Formation Natural Causes Accumulation of Gas and Control of Water Content Initiation by Fungi and Hormones
7.3.2 Anatomical Changes
7.3.3 Occurrence of Extractives
7.4 The Transition Zone and its Formation
7.5 Function of Extractives and Exudates
7.6 Formation of Exudates and Extractives
7.6.1 Differences in Composition
7.6.2 Site of Formation Exudates Extractives
7.6.3 Amounts
7.6.4 Type of Extractives in Tissues
7.7 Initiation of Formation of Heartwood, Extractives, and Exudates
7.7.1 Initiation by Displacement of Water
7.7.2 Initiation by Changes in Ethylene Levels and in Hormonal Balance
7.8 Factors Controlling the Nature of Extractives and Exudates
7.9 Activities at Cellular Levels
7.10 Conclusions


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