During its formative years, ecotourism was widely embraced as the antithesis of mass tourism because of its promise of achieving sustainability through conservation mindedness, community development, education and learning, and the promotion of nature based activities that were sensitive to both ecological and social systems. The extent to which this promise has been realised is open to debate. While critics argue that ecotourism is really no different than other more invasive forms of tourism - the proverbial wolf in sheep's clothes - supporters observe that these ecological and social systems are far better off because of ecotourism, not in spite of it. If there is one certainty, it is that ecotourism will continue to generate controversy because it challenges the conventional mindset on so many different theoretical and practical levels.
This book continues its tradition of touching on many of the most important questions about the purity and potential of ecotourism in the face of so many competing demands - demands that will not go away because they appear to a function of who we are at the very core.
1. The nature of tourism; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 Defining tourism: Tourism attraction; 1.3 Mass and alternative tourism: competing paradigms; 1.4 Sustainable development and tourism: Conceptualising tourism and sustainability; 1.5 Conclusion; 2. Ecotourism and ecotourists; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Ecotourism: Concepts and variables, definitions of ecotourism, Adventure tourism or ecotourism?; 3. Natural resources, conservation, and protected areas; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 The exploitation of the natural world: Natural resources, The earth's bounty; 3.3 The roots of conservationism: Harmony, Efficient use, Spirituality; 3.4 Parks and protected areas: Protected areas - the international scene, Private reserves; 3.5 Ecosystem management and protected areas; 3.6 Conclusion; 4. The social and ecological impacts of tourism; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Social impacts of tourism; 4.3 Ecological impacts: The early years, The concept of carrying capacity, The assessment of ecological impacts; 4.4 Conclusion; 5. The economics, marketing, and management of ecotourism; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 The economics of ecotourism: The flow of local money, Revenue and parks, The value of land; 5.3 Marketing; 5.4 Management issues in ecotourism: Privatisation, Not-for-Profit organisations and NGOs; 5.5 Conclusion; 6. From policy to professionalism; 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Tourism policy: Ecotourism and policy, regulation; 6.3 Agents and operators; 6.4 Professionalism; 6.5 Accreditation and certification: Guiding, Interpretation; 6.6 Conclusion; 7. Ecotourism programme planning: a focus on experience; 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Why are we in business?; 7.3 Programme planning: Philosophy, Mission, Goals and Objectives; 7.4 Needs and assets: Inventories of attractions and resources; 7.5 Programme design: Structure; 7.6 Programme design: Logistical considerations, Reasons to be cautious; 7.7 Programme design: risk and leadership, Risk management; 7.8 Programme implementation; 7.9 Evaluation: Formative and summative evaluation, How to evaluate; 8. Ecotourism development: international, community, and site perspectives; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 International issues: Development theory, Tourism in the underdeveloped world, Core periphery; 8.3 Community development: Partnerships, Aboriginal interests; 8.4 Site development: Sustainable design and ecolodges, Ecolodge research; 8.5 Conclusion; 9. The role of ethics in tourism; 9.1 Introduction; 9.2 Ethics; 9.3 Ethics and tourism: Too little research, Beyond codes of ethics; 9.4 Conclusion; 10. Conclusion.
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David Fennell teaches and researches mainly in the areas of ecotourism and tourism ethics at Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Ecotourism, and is an active member on editorial boards of many academic journals.