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Managing Risks of Nitrates to Humans and the Environment

Edited By: WS Wilson, AS Ball and RH Hinton

347 pages, Figs, tabs

Royal Society of Chemistry

Hardback | Dec 1999 | #98187 | ISBN: 0854047689
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £85.00 $108/€101 approx

About this book

Nitrate levels in the environment have been the subject of intense discussion for some time. There is now a growing awareness of the need to balance the benefits and risks involved, not only in respect of nitrogenous fertilizers but also in respect of nitrate as a dietary component. Managing Risks of Nitrates to Humans and the Environment offers the latest research information on the beneficial effects of nitrates and their fate in the environment. Covering in an integrated way the agricultural, environmental and medical aspects of this emotive topic, the book confirms the sources, interactions and fate of nitrate in soils, water and the atmosphere. There is also an extensive description of the biochemistry of nitrates in plants, animals and humans, indicating the positive aspects as well as the hazards. This unique book will be applicable to a wide research audience at graduate and postgraduate level.


Contents

Part 1 The nitrate problem in agriculture: nitrogen dynamics in natural and agricultural ecosystems; predicting nitrate losses from agricultural systems - measurements and models; fate of nitrogen from manufactured fertilizers in agriculture; using a rotational modelling system to explore the effect of straw incorporation on the efficiency of nitrogen use; assessing the importance of soluble organic nitrogen in agricultural soils; average fertilizer nitrogen use and estimates of nitrogen uptake by major arable crops in England and Wales; nitrate ensiled grass - a risk or benefit to livestock production?; the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on nitrogen cycling in a grassland ecosystem. Part 2 Environmental aspects of nitrates: the atmospheric nitrogen cycle and the role of anthropogenic activity; nitrates in soils and waters from sewage wastes on land; the role of nitrates in the eutrophication and acidification of surface waters; toxicity of nitrite to freshwater invertebrates; sensitive areas, vulnerable zones and buffer strips - a critical review of policy in agricultural nitrate control; considerations of the amino nitrogen in humic substances; fertilizer and nitrate pollution in India; status of nitrate contamination in ground water near Delhi - a case study. Part 3 Nitrates and health: the metabolism of dietary nitrates and nitrates; identification of nitrate reducing bacteria from the oral cavity of rats and pigs; potential risks and benefits of dietary nitrate; metabolism of nitrate in humans - implications for nitrate intake; bacterial nitrate reductase activity is induced in the oral cavity by dietary nitrate; antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrate on gut pathogens - the importance of dietary nitrate in host defence; effects of nitrates and nitrites in experimental animals; nitrate exposure and childhood diabetes.

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