Assessing biodiversity. Why assess biodiversity? - biodiversity assessment techniques - Total species list - Case Study of the discovery and conservation of the saola - total genera or family list - parallel-line searches - habitat subsampling - uniform effort - time restricted search - encounter rates - species discovery curves - Mackinnon lists - timed species counts - recording absence - habitat feature assessment - documenting rarities - collecting - labelling - preservatives - collecting plants, fungi, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals - ethnobotany - atlases - case study of the southern African frog atlas project - habitat mapping - remote sensing - databases.
Setting Conservation Prorities. Why set Conservation Priorities? - prioritising species - vulnerability to extinction - taxonomic isolation - what is a species? - flagship species - introduced species - likelihood of species recovery - prioritising species within areas - prioritising habitats - hot spots of global biodiversity - endemic bird areas - centres of plant diversity - important taxon areas - prioritising areas and selected reserves.
Monitoring. Why Monitor? - bias and accuracy - long term data sets - sampling - stratified sampling - monitoring plots - indices and censuses - counting recognisable individuals - quadrats and strip transects - distance sampling: line transets and point counts - mapping - mark/release/recapture frequency of capture - catch per unit effort - monitoring plants - total counts of plants - quadrats - seed sorting - measures of vegetation density - monitoring invertebrates - direct searching for invertebrates - beating for invertebrates - water traps for invertebrates - light traps for invertebrates - emergence traps for invertebrates - pitfall traps for invertebrates - sweep, pond and tow nets - benthic cores for invertebrates - monitoring fish - fish traps - gill and dip nets - electrofishing - transects and point counts for fish - monitoring amphibians: drift fencing - direct counts of amphibians - monitoring reptiles: mark - release - recapture of reptiles - direct observations of reptiles - monitoring birds: - direct counts of birds - transects for birds - point counts for birds - territory mapping - monitoring mammals: - direct counts of mammals - transects of mammals - mapping mammals - trapping mammals - dung counts - monitoring environmental variables: temperature - rainfall - water depth - water flow - evapotraspiration - wind speed - pH - underwater light - salinity - water chemistry - soil characteristics - monitoring human impact: - photographic monitoring -
Ecological Research Techniques. Why Carry Out Research? - designing a research project - experiments - hygienic fieldwork - determining habitat use - radio tracking - diet analysis - ageing and sexing - plants, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals - pollination biology: determining the breeding system - identifying the pollinators. Marking Individuals: - plants, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals. Studying the Fate of Individuals: - measuring breeding output - measuring mortality. Determining the Cause of Illness or Death: - collecting material for examination - autopsies - identifying plant pathogens - determining why eggs fail. Modelling Populations Changes: - principles of population ecology - creating population models. Risk of Extinction: - processes in small populations - population viability models - Case Study: estimating the population viability of a re-established white-tailed eagle population. Molecular Techniques: - identifying individuals and relatives - identifying species and populations - ten major statistical errors in conservation.
Diagnosis and Prediction. Why Diagnose Problems? - a need for evidence-based conservation? diagnosing why species have declined - case study: the Lord Howe Woodhen: diagnosis and recovery - predicting the ecological consequences of changes - environmental impact assessment - strategic environmental assessment.
Conservation Planning. Why Plan? - the planning process - the species action plan process - writing a species action plan - case study: the UK corncrake species action plan - the site management plan process - writing a management plan.
Organisational Management and Fund Raising. Why is Organisational Management Important? - leadership and management: leadership - delegation. Types of conservation organisations and their problems - collaboration between organisations. Meetings: generating ideas in meetings - crisis management - fund raising - grants.
Education and Ecotourism Why Educate? - planning and running an education programme - case study: conservation stickers in sumba - case study: public involvement in the conservation of Tiritiri Matanga island, New Zealand - case study: Global Rivers EnvironmentalEducation Network - identification guides - ecotourism - case study: managing tourism in the Antarctic.
Bringing About Political and Policy Changes. Why Enter Politics? - campaigning - case study: water extraction in Mon Lake - publicity: case study: international collaboration to reduce pesticide poisoning. Negotiating and conflict resolution - changing legislation - case study: reducing traffic damage to a roadside reserve - meetings - economic instruments - the importance of international agreements: Convention on Global Biodiversity (1992) - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973) (CITES) - Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (1979) (Bonn Convention) - Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (1971) (Ramsar Convention).
Species Management. Why Manage Species? - manipulating wild populations - creating breeding sites - supplementary food - hand pollination - controlling parasites - controlling predators, herbivores and competitors - eradication of problem species - control of problem species - exclusion of problem species - changing the behaviour of problem species - captive breeding - plant propagation: seed storage - re-establishments: determining feasibility and desirability of re-establishments - release protocol - monitoring of re-establishments - case study: Brush-tailed Phascogale re-establisment - learning from experiments.
Habitat Management. Habitat Management or Wilderness Creation? - the need for research - case study: wild nature in the Dutch Oostvaardersplassen - size, isolation and continuity - disturbance - retaining old habitats - grazing - burning - hydrology - understanding the hydrology - water management - water quality - habitat creation, restoration and translocation - waterbeds - trees and shrubs - grass and herbaceous communities - reefs - translocation - managing access: zoning - car parks and footpaths - visitors centres and hides.
Exploitation. Why Manage Exploitation? - benefits of exploitation - why does overexploitation occur? - determining sustainable yields: surplus yield models - yield per recruit models - Robinson and Redford models - relating yield to recruitment and mortality - adjusting in relation to population changes - Lotka-Volterra model. Case study: Moose exploitation - Case Study: Goose management in North America. Full population model - adaptive management - controlling exploitation - discouraging illegal persecution - Case Study: anti-poaching strategy to protect the Amur tiger. Criminal detection.
Integrating Development and Conservation. Why Combine Development and Conservation? - approaches for combining development and conservation - regulations to restrict access or use - increasing the value of natural resources - alternatives to damaging exploitation - development as part of a package - benefit sharing - general principles for integrated conservation development projects - Case Study: combining development and conservation in Kilum-Ijim forest, Cameroon. Participatory development - the project cyle. Case Study: Coral Reef and Fisheries Management in the Philippines. Identification - Planning - Appraisal - Implementation - Monitoring - Completion - Evaluation. Basic methods for conservation development projects: key questions - participatory research and monitoring techniques - stakeholder analysis - problem trees and objective trees - options analysis - logical framework analysis - risk analysis - identifying and allocating tasks - stakeholder participation matrix - Capacity Building. References.