Books  Environmental Science  Climate & Climate Change 

Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change

Edited By: Guy P Brasseur, John J Orlando and Geoffrey S Tyndall

654 pages, 23 col plates, illus, figs, tabs

Oxford University Press

Hardback | Dec 1999 | #103645 | ISBN: 0195105214
Availability: Usually dispatched within 2-3 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £106.00 $133/€125 approx

About this book

Presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system.


Contents

PREFACE; LIST OF AUTHORS; LIST OF FREQUENTLY-USED SYMBOLS; 1. Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth's System; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 The Earth System; Further Reading; Essay: Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System; PART 1: FUNDAMENTALS; 2. Atmospheric Dynamics and Transport; 2,1 Introduction; 2.2 The Governing Equations; 2.3 Constraints on Atmospheric Motion; 2.4 Zonal Means and Eddies; 2.5 Atmospheric Waves; 2.6 Tropospheric Circulation and Transport; 2.7 Stratospheric Circulation and Transport; 2.8 Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange; Further Reading; Essay: Why Understand Dynamics - And What Is "Understanding" Anyway?; 3. Chemical and Photochemical Processes; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Radiation; 3.3 Photophysical and Photochemical Processes; 3.4 Chemical Reactions; 3.5 Catalytic Cycles; 3.6 Role of Excited States; 3.7 Measurements of Rates Coefficients; 3.8 Lifetimes in the Atmospheres; 3.9 The Steady State Approximation; Further Reading; Essay: When Do We Know Enough about Atmospheric Chemistry?; 4. Chemical and Photochemical Processes; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Overview of the Atmospheric Aerosol; 4.3 The Role of Clouds in Tropospheric Chemistry; 4.4 Single-Particle Physical Characteristics; 4.5 Gas-to-Particle Conversion; 4.6 Acid-Base Reactions of Aerosol Particles; 4.7 Removal of Aerosols; 4.8 Solubility of Gases in Particles; 4.9 Mass Transfer Rates; 4.10 Aqueous Reaction; Further Reading; Essay: Aerosols and Clouds: A Postscript; 5. Trace gas Exchanges and Biogeochemical Cycles; 5.1 Introductions; 5.2 Surface Exchanges; 5.3 The Global Water Cycle; 5.4 The Global Carbon Cycle; 5.5 The Global Nitrogen Cycle; 5.6 The Global Sulfur Cycle; 5.7 Halogens; Further Reading; Essays: The View from Outside; PART 2: CHEMICAL FAMILIES; 6. Hydrogen Compounds; 6.1 Importance of Atmospheric Hydrogen Compounds; 6.2 Scope and Definitions; 6.3 Sources of Hydrogen Compunds to the Atmosphere; 6.4 Chemistry of Hydrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere; 6.5 Chemistry of Hydrogen Compunds in the Troposphere; 6.6 Concentrations of Hydrogen Compunds in the Stratosphere; 6.7 Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Traposphere; 6.8 Summary; Further Reading; Essay: Hydrogen Compounds; 7. Nitrogen Compounds; 7.1 Importance of Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen; 7.2 Scope and Definitions; 7.3 The Role of Odd Nitrogen in the Stratosphere; 7.4 Odd Nitrogen in the "Contemporary" Stratosphere; 7.5 Odd Nitrogen in the Troposphere; 7.6 Experimental Summary of the Influence of Odd ain ogen in the Continental Boundary Layer; 7.7 NO3 Chemistry; 7.8 Gaseous Acid and Particulate Nitrate Formation; Further Reading; Essay: Time's Arrow; 8. Halogen Compounds; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Scope and Definitions; 8.3 Sources of Halogens; 8.4 Loss Processes of Halogen Sources Gases; 8.5 Inorganic Chemistry of Halogen Species; 8.6 Controlling the Detrimental Effects of Halogens on the Atmosphere; Further Reading; Essay: CFC's and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; 9. Carbon-Containing Compounds; 9.2 Scope and Definition; 9.3 Atmospheric Photochemistry of Hydrocarbons; 9.4 Distribution of Hydrocarbons; Further Reading; Essay: Hydrocarbons; 10. Sulfur Compunds; 10.1 Introduction; 10.2 Scope and Definitions; 10.3 Sulfur Compounds; 10.4 Tropospheric Chemistry of Sulfur; 10.5 Measurements of Sulfur Gas Abundances and Distributions; 10.6 SO2 and Acid Precipitation; 10.7 Stratospheric Sulfur Chemistry; 10.8 Gas Phase Ionic Chemistry in the Statosphere; Further Reading; Essay: Sulfur, Aerosols, Clouds and Rain; PART 3: TOOLS; 11. Observational Methods: Instruments and Platforms; 11.1 Introduction; 11.2 Instumentation for Constitutent Measurements; 11.3 Flux Measurements; 11.4 Measurements of Atmospheric Radiation; 11.5 Instumentation for Aerosol and Cloud Measurements; 11.6 Observing Platforms; Further Reading; Essay: From Individual Measurements to Scale Integration Strategies; 12. Modeling; 12.1 Introduction; 12.2 Model Equations; 12.3 Modeling Chemical Processes; 12.4 Modeling Atmospheric Transport; 12.5 Examples and Illustrations; 12.6 Modeling Global Budgets and Biogeochemical Cycles; 12.7 Data Assimilation; 12.8 Inverse Modeling; Further Reading; Essay: How Complex Do Models Need to Be?; PART 4: OZONE, CLIMATE AND GLOBAL CHANGE; 13. Tropospheric Ozone; 13.1 Introduction; 13.2 Distribution and Trends; 13.3 Production and Loss of ozone; 13.4 major Uncertainties and Research Needs; Further Reading; Essay: Tropospheric Ozone; 14. Middle Atmospheric Ozone; 14.1 Introduction; 14.2 The Ozone Distribution; 14.3 Ozone Production; 14.4 Ozone Destruction; 14.5 Transport Effects; 14.6 Polar Ozone; 14.7 Ozone Peturbations; 14.8 Imapct of Ozone Depletion on UV Radiation; Further Reading; Essay: Ozone depletion: From Pole to Pole; 15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate; 15.1 Introduction; 15.2 Radiation in the Atmosphere; 15.3 natural Variations: Past Climates; 15.4 Impact of Anthropogenic Trace Gases on Climate; 15.5 Global Warming Potentials (GWP'S); 15.6 Radiative Effects of Aerosols; 15.7 Response of Climate System to Radiative Forcing; Further Reading; Essay: Can Climate Models be Validated?; 16. Atmospheric Evolution and Global Perspective; 16.1 Introduction; 16.2 Atmospheric Evolution on Geological Timescales; 16.3 Human Influences on the Atmosphere; 16.4 Future Trends; 16.5 Global Perspective; Further Reading; Essay: The Atmospheric Humankind: Our Related Futures; APPENDICES; A: Physical Constants and Other Data; B: Units, Conversion factors and Multiplying Prefixes; C: Atmospheric Parameters and Mixing Ratios of Chemical Constituents; D: Chemical Species in the Atmosphere; E: Rate Constants for Second-Order Gas Phase Reactions; F: Rate Constants for Association Gas Phase Reactions; G: Mass Accomidation Coefficients; H: Surface Reaction Probability; I: Saturation Vapor Pressure over Water and Ice; J: Henry's Law Coefficients; K: Aqueous Equilibrium Constants; L: Rate Constants for Aqueous Phase Reaction; M: Spectrum of Solar Extraterrestrial Actinic Flux (120-730 nm); N: Photolysis Frequencies; SAMPLE PROBLEMS; REFERENCES

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