Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are modules involved in the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular targets in all eukaryotes. Distinct MAPK pathways are regulated by different extracellular stimuli and are implicated in a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, there is evidence for MAPKs playing a role in the signaling of abiotic stresses, pathogens, plant hormones, and cell cycle cues. The large number and divergence of plant MAPKs indicates that this ancient mechanism of bioinformatics is extensively used in plants and may provide new molecular hands on old questions.
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