The European species of Omphale are revised, including 37 species, of which 11 are new. All species are described, thoroughly illustrated, and included in gender-specific identification keys. Two new morphological character-sets are introduced for the classification, male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs). Both sets are used to identify species, and the former is also useful for classification of species-groups. Hosts are known for 14 species and all are primary endoparasitoids of immature stages of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Host preferences are unique for each species, suggesting host specialization as a driving force for speciation. Several of the species are known only from females or have a strong female-biased sex-ratio, indicating thelytokous parthenogenesis. Distributional data point to a pan-European distribution for most species. New synonyms and combinations affect the nomenclature in subfamily Entedoninae.
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