About this book
Topics are presented as double page spreads (learning units) so that material is presented in manageable sections. The reading age has been carefully controlled, and the text written to ensure clear and unambiguous explanations. Great care has been taken with the sequencing and development of concepts, while assuming that the student had only an average grade at GCSE level. More difficult sections are clearly marked so that they can be omitted at first. Each chapter has a concise summary of the work covered. A large number of questions are included, for students to practise and develop their competence. 'Biology at Work' sections give many applications of chemistry throughout the book. It includes sections on 'Key Skills in Biology, 'Practical Skills' and 'Study Skills'.
Part 1 Core principles: biological molecules - structure and role of carbohydrates, proteins and fats; cells - ultrastructure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; the cell membrane and transport - plasma membrane structure, diffusion, osmosis, active transport; enzymes - properties and action of enzymes related to their 3-D structure; digestion - types of heterotrophic nutrition, structure and functions of the human digestive system; further questions on core principles. Part 2 Genes and genetic engineering: nucleic acids and protein synthesis - structure of DNA and RNA, replication, transcription, translation, the genetic code and protein synthesis; cell division - the stages of mitosis and meiosis, the cell cycle, cloning; reproduction - the importance of meiosis and fertilization in sexual reproduction; gene technology - industrial fermentation, PCR, genetic fingerprinting, gene therapy, transgenic organisms; further questions on genes and genetic engineering. Part 3 Gas exchange and transport: gas exchange - gas exchange surfaces, gas exchange in humans and in plants; transport in animals - heart action, control of heartbeat, blood vessels, exchange at capillaries, oxygen dissociation curves; transport in plants - leaf structure, structure and function of xylem and phloem, transpiration and water uptake by roots, xerophytes, translocation; further questions on gas exchange and transport. Part 4 Human health and disease: diet and health - balanced diet, different energy and nutrient needs, malnutrition; exercise and health - breathing and exercise, smoking and diseases of the lungs and heart; infectious disease and immunity - bacterial and viral disease, the immune response, vaccination, antibiotics and resistance; further questions on human health and disease. Part 5 Energy and control: respiration - the role of ATP, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; photosynthesis - light stage, dark stage, the rate of photosynthesis; homeostasis - thermoregulation, control of blood glucose level, the kidney excretion and osmoregulation; control and coordination - nerve impulse, synapses, spinal reflexes, the eye, muscle contraction, plant growth substances; further questions on energy and control. Part 6 Continuity and environment: inheritance - monohybrid and dihybrid inheritance, codominance, multiple alleles, gene interaction, sex linkage; selection, evolution and classification - gene and chromosome mutations, natural selection, speciation, artificial selection, classification, the 5 kingdoms; energy and ecosystems - feeding relationships, pyramids, energy flow, nutrient cycling; interactions between organisms - population growth, competition, predation, biological control, succession, fieldwork techniques; human influences on ecosystems - deforestation, greenhouse effect, acid rain, organic pollution, eutrophication, bioaccumulation; further questions on continuity and environment; further synoptic questions. Part 7 Extra sections: study skills; prac