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Amphibians are considered to be the best indicators of environmental health. A decline in amphibian populations indicates ecosystem deterioration that might affect a wider spectrum of the earth's biological diversity. During the last 12 years there has been a great concern, worldwide, about the rapid decline in amphibian populations. Many reasons have been attributed to the loss of amphibians including habitat loss, UV-B radiation, global warming, toxic chemicals, pathogens that destroy eggs and larval stages, direct harvest and other. Of these, loss of habitat seems to be the most significant factor, at least in tropical countries. In this book, 72 species of Indian amphibians including caecilians have been described. These amphibians are common and widely distributed in peninsular India and represent about one third of all amphibian species known in India. The descriptions contain details of other closely-related species, taking the actual number of amphibian species discussed to well over 100.