Nonliving Organic Matter (NOM) exerts a profound influence on various processes in the environment, and is one of the most important factors when analyzing ecosystems globally. Compiling the efforts of world-renowned researchers fusing their knowledge to explore NOM and its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems offers an integrated view of the dynamics and processes of NOM. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the book is a wellspring of integrated knowledge for all students and professionals in the field.
Chapter 1: Evolution of Concepts of Environmental Natural Non-Living Organic Matter (M. H. B. Hayes). 1. Introduction. 2. Organic Matter at The 'Dawn' of Soil Research. 3. Scientific Approaches to Studies of Soil Humic Substances. 4. Emergence of Concepts of Compositions and Structures of Soil Humic Components. 5. Soil Saccharides. 6. Soil Peptides. 7. The Future for Studies of Environmental Natural Organic Matter. References. Chapter 2: Formation Mechanisms of Humic Substances in the Environment (P. M. Huang and A. G. Hardie). 1. Introduction. 2. Current Concepts of the Nature of Humic Substances. 3. Decomposition of Organic Residues in the Environment. 4. Pathways of Humic Substance Formation. 5. Biotic Catalysis of Synthetic Humification Pathways. 6. Abiotic Catalysis of Synthetic Humification Pathways. 7. Comparison of The Mechanisms and Significance of Biotic and Abiotic Catalyses of Humification Reactions in Natural Environments. 8. Conclusions And Future Research Prospects. Acknowledgment. References. Chapter 3: Organo-Clay Complexes in Soils and Sediments (Gabriela Chilom and James A. Rice). 1. The Components of soils and sediments. 2. ADSorption of organic matter to clays. 3. Future research opportunities. References.
Chapter 4: The effect of organic matter amendment on native soil humic substances (C. Plaza and N. Senesi). 1. Introduction. 2. Mineralization and Humification Processes in Amended Soils. 3. Humification Parameters. 4. Compositional and Structural Features of Humic Substances in Amended Soils. 5. Reactivity of Humic Substances in Amended Soils. 6. Conclusions. References.
Chapter 5: Carbon Sequestration in Soil (Maria De Nobili, Marco Contin, and Yona Chen). 1. Introduction. 2. Processes Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Soil. 3. Studies Employing Isotopes. 4. Effects of Increasing Carbon Inputs to Soils. 5. Effects of Reducing Carbon Inputs to Soil. 6. Conclusions. References.
Chapter 6: Storage and Turnover of Organic Matter in Soil (Torn, M. S., C. W. Swanston, C. Castanha, S. E. Trumbore). 1. Introduction. 2. The Amount of Organic Carbon Stored in Soils. 3. Turnover Time and Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter. 4. Important Controls of Soil Carbon Dynamics. 5. Responses of Soil Organic Matter to Global Environmental Change. 6. Conclusions and Future Prospects. 7. Appendix 1. Methods of Radiocarbon (14C) Analysis and Reporting of 14C Data. 8. Appendix 2. Modeling Carbon Dynamics Using Radiocarbon Measurements. Acknowledgments. References.
Chapter 7: Black Carbon and Thermally Altered (Pyrogenic) Organic Matter: Chemical Characteristics and the Role in the Environment (Heike Knicker). 1. Introduction. 2. Temperature and PyOM production. 3. Analytical Characterization of PyOM. 4. Structural properties of PyOM. 5. Quantification of PyOM. 6. Interaction of PyOM with the environment. 7. Understanding the role of PyOM - what are the missing links and knowledge gaps? References. Chapter 8: Biological Activities of Humic Substances (Nardi S., P. Carletti, D. Pizzeghello, and A.Muscolo). 1. Introduction. 2. An Overview On Definitions, Features, Properties And Functions Of Humic Substances. 3. Historical Overview. 4. The Vaughan and Malcom milestone: towards a modern approach of Humic Substances studies. 5. Morphological Changes in response to Humic Substances. 6. Macro- and Micro-Nutrient uptake modifications. 7. Effects of humic substances on biochemical pathways and processes. 8. Conclusions and perspectives. References.
Chapter 9: Role of Humic Substances in the Rhizosphere (Pinton R., S. Cesco, and Z. Varanini). 1. Introduction. 2. Chemistry and biochemistry of the rhizosphere. 3. Humic substances in the rhizosphere. 4. Role of humic substances in soil-root interaction. 5. Direct action of humic substances on plant nutrition and growth. 6. Conclusions. References.
Chapter 10: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural environments (Fritz H. Frimmel, and Gudrun Abbt-Braun). 1. Definition of DOM. 2. Characterisation Methods. 3. Structure of DOM. 4. Interactions of DOM. 5. Occurrence of DOM. 6. Human Impact. References.
Chapter 11: Marine Organic Matter (E. M. Perdue, and R. Benner). 1. Introduction. 2. Inventories and Fluxes. 3. Transformations. 4. Chemical Properties. 5. Conclusions and Future Directions. Chapter 12: Natural Organic Matter in Atmospheric Particles (A. da Costa Duarte and R. M. B. Oliveira Duarte). 1. Introduction to Atmospheric Aerosols. 2. Major Constituents of Atmospheric Aerosols. 3. Sources, Transformation and Removal of Organic Aerosols (OAS). 4. Organic Aerosols: Impacts on Climate and Human Health. 5. Chemical and Physical Properties of Organic Aerosols. 6. Conclusions: Knowledge Gaps and Research Needed. References. Chapter 13: Separation Technology as a Powerful Tool for Unfolding Molecular Complexity of Natural Organic Matter and Humic Substances (I. V. Perminova, A. Gaspar, Ph. Schmitt-Kopplin, N. A. Kulikova, Lomonosov, A. I. Konstantinov, N. Hertkorn, K. Hatfield, and E. V. Kunenkov. 1. Introduction. 2. Covalent and Non-Covalent Interactions Within NOM and HS. 3. Separation of NOM and HS Based on Molecular Size. 4. Separation of Complex NOM and HS Systems Based on Charge Density and Polarity: Electrophoretic Techniques. 5. Hyphenated Techniques: Towards Offline and Online Multidimensional Techniques. 6. Reconciling Macroscopic and Microscopic Properties of NOM and HS. 7. Conclusions and Future Prospects. References. Chapter 14: Analytical pyrolysis and soft-ionization mass spectrometry (Peter Leinweber, Gerald Jandl, Kai-Uwe Eckhardt, Andr' Schlichting, Diana Hofmann, and Hans-Rolf Schulten). 1. Introduction. 2. Overview on Analytical Techniques. 3. Recent Applications to Natural Nonliving Organic Matter Composition and Dynamics. 4 Conclusions and Outlook. References.
Chapter 15: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Natural Organic Matter (A. J. Simpson and M. J. Simpson). 1. Introduction. 2. The Basic NMR Techniques. 3. Structural Studies of NOM. 4. Interactions and Associations of NOM. 5. Advanced and Emerging Areas in Relation to NOM. 6. Conclusions and Future Prospects. References.
Chapter 16: EPR, FTIR, Raman, UV-visible absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopies in studies of NOM (L. Martin-Neto, D. M. B. P. Milori, W. T. L. Da Silva and M.L. Simoes). 1. Introduction. 2. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). 3. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). 4. Raman Spectroscopy. 5. Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption (UV-VIS). 6. Ultraviolet and Visible Fluorescence. 7. Conclusion and Perspectives. References. Chapter 17: Synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray Spectroscopy of NOM in soils and sediments (J. Lehmann, J. Brandes, H. Fleckenstein, C. Jacobson, D. Solomon, and J. Thieme). 1. Introduction. 2. Principles. 3. Data Analyses. 4. Composition of NOM in the Environment. 5. Conclusions. References.
Chapter 18: Thermal Analysis for Advanced Characterization of Natural Nonliving Organic Materials (E. J. Leboeuf, and L. Zhang). 1. Introduction. 2. Material Properties of Macromolecules. 3. Thermal Behaviors of NOM. 4. Thermalanalytical Characterization Techniques. 5. Summary and Conclusion. References.
Nicola Senesi, PhD, FSSSA, FASA, FPSSS, is Professor of Soil Chemistry and Head of the Department of Agroforestal and Environmental Biology and Chemistry of the University of Bari, Bari, Italy, where he has been actively involved in research and teaching since 1969. He was conferred a doctorate honoris causa by the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France, in 2000. He has edited ten books and published over 250 scientific refeered articles and book chapters. Baoshan Xing, PhD, is Professor of Environmental and Soil Chemistry at the Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he has been actively involved in teaching and research since 1996. Dr. Xing is a Cheung Kong Scholar and has published over 150 scientific refereed articles. His research work is ranked in the top 1 of cited authors for journals in environment and ecology. Dr. Xing received his PhD degree from the University of Alberta, Canada, in 1994. Pan Ming Huang, PhD, FAAAS, FASA, FCSSS, FSSSA, FWIF, is Professor Emeritus of Soil Science at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. Dr. Huang has published over 300 refereed articles and book chapters, written two books, edited eighteen others, and served on many editorial boards. He received the Distinguished Researcher Award from the University of Saskatchewan and the Soil Science Research Award from the Soil Science Society of America.