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About this book
About this book
This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources of organic matter identified in the sediment record, the book indicates that the application of these biomarkers for an understanding of aquatic ecosystems consists of a biogeochemical approach that has been quite successful but underused. This book offers a wide-ranging guide to the broad diversity of these chemical biomarkers, is the first to be structured around the compounds themselves, and examines them in a connected and comprehensive way.
This timely book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking training in this area; researchers in biochemistry, organic geochemistry, and biogeochemistry; researchers working on aspects of organic cycling in aquatic ecosystems; and paleoceanographers, petroleum geologists, and ecologists.
Preface xi Acknowledgments xix Chapter 1. Metabolic Synthesis 1 Chapter 2. Chemical Biomarker Applications to Ecology and Paleoecology 19 Chapter 3. Stable Isotopes and Radiocarbon 30 Chapter 4. Analytical Chemical Methods and Instrumentation 49 Chapter 5. Carbohydrates: Neutral and Minor Sugars 79 Chapter 6. Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines 98 Chapter 7. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Tools 127 Chapter 8. Lipids: Fatty Acids 144 Chapter 9. Isoprenoid Lipids: Steroids, Hopanoids, and Triterpenoids 169 Chapter 10. Lipids: Hydrocarbons 185 Chapter 11. Lipids: Alkenones, Polar Lipids, and Ether Lipids 207 Chapter 12. Photosynthetic Pigments: Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Phycobilins 221 Chapter 13. Lignins, Cutins, and Suberins 248 Chapter 14. Anthropogenic Markers 267 Appendix I. Atomic Weights of Elements 287 Appendix II. Useful SI Units and Conversion Factors 291 Appendix III. Physical and Chemical Constants 293 Glossary 295 Bibliography 309 Index 385
Thomas S. Bianchi is professor of oceanography at Texas A&M University. Elizabeth A. Canuel is professor of marine science at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary.
392 pages, B/w illus
Bianchi and Canuel have done an extraordinary job of capturing the essence of biomarker geochemistry in their timely and important book. They give an in-depth overview of this discipline from its roots more than a half-century ago to the present day. In doing so, they explain the fundamentals of molecular and isotopic organic geochemistry, and they describe interesting applications of these tracers for improving understanding of organic matter origins and cycles in marine, estuarine, and freshwater settings.--Philip A. Meyers, professor emeritus, University of Michigan
"This book is a great introduction to molecularly based biogeochemistry. The authors take a multidisciplinary approach, especially in bringing together the methodologies of biochemistry, microbiology, genomics, and ecology. The bibliography is extensive and up-to-date, documenting the measurement, origins, roles, and fates of all major classes of biosynthetic compounds. Aspiring researchers will find this book an ideal companion with which to join the gathering forward surge of earth systems science."--Geoffrey Eglinton, coauthor of Echoes of Life
"This is a must-have volume for all hands-on researchers, in aquatic biogeochemistry, organic geochemistry, and molecular ecology, from beginning undergraduates to experienced senior researchers. Bianchi and Canuel have assembled a concise and up-to-date compendium, with extensive illustrations and references to the latest literature of the diversity of organic chemical biomarkers, their biosynthetic pathways, environmental distributions, and utility for characterizing biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems."--Stuart G. Wakeham, professor emeritus, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography