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About this book
About this book
This is a unique, timely and engaging text with wide ranging geographical coverage. The text brings together, for the first time, information about a vast array of hazards associated with ice and snow, spanning both well known phenomenon (e.g. avalanches) and the less familiar (e.g. river ice jams and ice storms) using, in many cases, material which is rarely seen outside advanced academic research books and journals. The range of ice-related hazards will be introduced and the significance of the current global warming context discussed. Broad physical models of glacial, periglacial and atmospheric cold environments are presented to provide a scientific context for discussion of the human issues of risk, vulnerability impact and mitigation.
Key Features: * Wide ranging geographical coverage (the Americas, Asia, Australasia, Antarctic & Europe) * Localised hazards (avalanches, life storms, landslides) contrasted to those with wider reaching effects (arctic ice loss, ice sheet retreat and wide spread permafrost decay) * Includes the latest developments in the field * Each chapter includes hazards overview, summery, conclusions, potential projects exercise and key references * Includes a supplementary website with figures from the text and further references * Each chapter includes a hazards overview, summary, conclusions, potential projects exercise and key references
Preface Acknowledgements 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Concept and rationale 1.2 Hazard awareness 1.3 Physical properties of ice classification 1.4 Hazard and Risk 1.5 Summary 2.0 Arctic Sea Ice 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The Arctic Ocean 2.3 Sea ice thickness and extent 2.4 Impacts 2.5 direct impacts 2.6 Direct Impacts 2.7 Mitigation 2.8 Summary 3.0 Ice Sheets - Antarctica and Greenland 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Ice sheet systems 3.3 Greenland 3.4 Antarctica 3.5 Impacts of ice sheet loss 3.6 Mitigation 3.7 Summary 4.0 Icebergs 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Iceberg characteristics 4.3 Iceberg impact and risk 4.4 Iceberg mitigation 4.5 Summary 5.0 Glaciers 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Inherent glacier hazards 5.3 Glacier mass balance changes 5.4 Mitigation measures 5.5 Summary 6.0 Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The glacial meltwater system 6.3 GLOFs 6.4 Trigger mechanisms 6.5 Impacts 6.6 Risk 6.7 Mitigation 6.8 Summary 7.0 Permafrost 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Permafrost distribution and characteristics 7.3 Permafrost hazardousness 7.4 Lowland permafrost hazards 7.5 Mountain permafrost hazards 7.6 Summar 8.0 Snow Avalanches 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Definition, classification and motion 8.3 Factors promoting avalanches 8.4 Impacts 8.5 Mitigation measures 8.6 Summary 9.0 River ice - Ice Jams and Ice Roads 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Ice jams 9.3 Ice roads 9.4 Summary 10.0 Ice storms and Blizzards 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Definitions 10.3 Weather systems and processes 10.4 Impacts 10.5 Mitigation 10.6 Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS) 10.6 Impact of climate warming 10.7 Summary 11.0 Conclusions - The future References Glossary