Tropical rainforests fascinate scientists and explorers. The richness and variety of forms, and the diversity of species have been acknowledged for centuries. Measures to protect endangered species within this ecosystem were already thought necessary in the mid-nineteenth century. Since the 1920s commercial greed, political misdemeanour and the relentless increase in the human population have all posed increasing threats to the future of rainforests. Sustainability is now of paramount importance.
This new edition of Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests applies the large body of knowledge, experience and tradition available to those who study tropical rainforests. Revised and updated in light of developments in science, technology, economics, politics, etc. and their effects on tropical forests, it describes the principles of integrated conservation and management that lead to sustainability, identifying the unifying phenomena that regulate the processes within the rainforest and that are fundamental to the ecosystem viability. Features of the natural forest and the socio-cultural ecosystems which can be mimicked in the design of self-sustaining forests are also discussed. A holistic approach to the management and conservation of rainforests is developed throughout Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests. The focus on South-East Asian forestry will be widened to include Africa and Latin America. Recent controversial issues such as biofuels and carbon credits with respect to tropical forests and their inhabitants will be discussed. This book is a substantial contribution to the literature, it is a valuable resource for all those concerned with rainforests.
Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols
1 Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem, Land Cover, Habitat, Resource
1.1 Tropical Rainforest: Myths, Delusions and Reality
1.2 Rainforest Macro- and Mesoclimate
1.3 Rainforest Soils, Soil Types and Vegetation Types, Mosaics and Catenas
1.4 Large- and Medium- Scale Dynamic Changes of MDF at Large and Medium Spatial Scales
1.5 Rooting Sphere
1.6 Tree Crowns and Canopy: Physiognomy/ Structure and Functions
1.7 Hydrology, Nutrients and Pollutants
1.8 Tree Species Richness and Diversity
1.9 Floristic Changes and Distribution Patterns
1.10 Pristine and Manipulated Forest and Animal Life
1 .11 Small-scale Dynamics, Regeneration, Sub-Formations and Early Growth
1.12 Forest Biomass, Stocks and Accretion
1.13 Forest Growth, Productivity and Production, Above-Ground and Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
1.14 The Worrying Global to Local Significance of Uncertainties, Risks and Constant Changes
1.15 Forest Diversity and Functions
1.16 Some Afterthoughts: How Much Science, How Much Ecological Insight Do We Still Need to Act and Why is There so Much Talk and Little Action?
2 Rainforest Use: Necessity, Wisdom, Greed, Folly
2.1 Original Inhabitants and Secondary Refugees: Forest-dwellers and the Rainforest
2.2 Shifting Cultivators, Cultural Transition, Agroforestry and NWFP
2.3 Native Customary Rights and Forestry
2.4 The Nightmares of Customary Logging, Illegal Landuse and Timber Mining
2.5 Customary and Conventional Selective Logging and the Community
2.6 Timber Production, Trade and Demands
2.7 Rainforest Abuse or Use: Exploitation or Integrated Harvesting?
2.8 Low-impact Harvesting Systems in the TRF
2.9 Tropical Rainforest and Global Climate Oscillations and Change
2.10 Environmental Change and Forestry
3. Sustainable Forestry in Rainforests: Reality or Dream, Hope or Chimaera?
3.1 The Concept of Sustainable Forestry: Origin and Post-Modern Relevance
3.2 The Holistic Nature of Sustainability in Forestry
3.3 Unpredictability and Uncertainties
3.4 History of Sustainable Forestry in Tropical Rainforests
3.5 Short History of Rainforest Silviculture and Management
3.6 Principles of Silvicultural Management
3.7 Conclusion: Hope or Chimera?
3.8 The “World Forestry” Concept: Glimmer of Hope or just another Dreamy Buzz?
4 Principles and Strategies of Sustainability
4.1 Time Scale and Hierarchy of Sustainability Principles and Strategies
4.2 Principles at National Level
4.3 Principles at Regional and Forest Management Unit Level
4.4 Principles at Forest-stand Level
4.5 Timber Management and Conservation/Preservation: Segregation or Integration?
4.6 Sustainable Alternative: Non-timber or Non-wood Forest Products?
5. The Tortuous Road Towards Forest Sustainability in the TRF: cases from which to learn
5.1 Example: The State of Sarawak
5.2 Africa: Paradigm Change in the Congo Basin blocks satisfactory Progress
5.3 Tropical America: Few could cope with Social Distortions and Political Miscasts
6. Naturalistic Close-to-Nature-Forestry Management in TRF
6.1 Origin, Goals, Targets and Principles of Close to Nature Forestry (CNF)
6.2 Potential and Actual Economic Production in CNF-TRF
6.3 Growth and Sustained Yield Potential of CNF in MDF
6.4 Systems unsuitable for Perhumid/ Humid Evergreen Tropical Forest (TRF)
6.5 Techniques, Standards and Problems of CNF in TRF
6.6 SMS for Fragile Oligotrophic Upland Soils in Kerangas and Caatinga Forests
6.7 SMS for Fragile Oligotrophic Peatswamp Soils in APR
6.8 Overcoming the Enigma of Uncertainty
6.9. Prospects for CNF in APR, Congo Basin and Amazon Basin-Yukatan
7 How to Avoid Forest Degradation or Upgrade Degraded Forest Ecosystems: a classic World Forestry Problem
7.1 When did the Problems Evolve and what Attempts were Made at Mitigation?
7.2 Restoration or Rehabilitation of Over-logged and timber-mined Upland Rainforests
7.3 Restoration in Secondary Forests on Zonal TRF Sites
7.4 Example: Multiple-purpose Plantations in Semengoh Forest Reserve
7.5 Restoration of Biodiversity in Plots RP 76 and TP 4B , Semengoh Forest Reserve
7.6. The Deramakot Model R&D Project, Role Model of an Integrated Approach
7.7 Silvicultural Conclusions on Restoration on Oxi-and Ultisols and on Podsols
8. Short-rotation Tree Plantations
8.1 Motivation and Objectives
8.2 Rationale and Risks
8.3 Selection System CNF versus Customary Logging and Conversion to Plantation
9 Forest Management: Doctrine, Muddle or Goal-Orientated System
9.1 What went wrong?
9.2 Do we still Need New Guidelines for Forestry in the Tropics?
9.3 Example: the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) Guidelines
9.4 The ITTO Guidelines for Planted Tropical Forests and Recreating Tropical Forests
9.5 Planning Sustainable Forest Utilisation: Information Needs
10 Certification of Forest Management and Timber Origin
10.1 Roots: Forest Resource Rape ; Offshoots: Boycott of Tropical Forestry and Timber
10.2 Principles, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainability
10.3. Objective Certification in TRF: Practicable or Virtually Impossible
10.4 Trade Policies and Tree-species Conservation
10.5 Why so far so little success and effect for so much fuss?
11 Where are We and the TRF in 2013?
11.1 Some Fundamentals
11.2 Management and Conservation
12 Quo Vadis Silva Tropikos?
12.1 Classic Rome and Athens Teach a Lesson on the Roots of the Dilemma
12.2 Action Priorities
12.3 Where Should the TRF Go, where Can it Go
Appendix 1: Glossary
Appendix 2: Biocybernetic Principles of System Design
References and Further Reading
Index of Species and Major Non- timber Forest Products