Anemones and fish, ants and acacia trees, fungus and trees, buffaloes and oxpeckers – each of these unlikely duos is an inimitable partnership in which the species' coexistence is mutually beneficial. More specifically, they represent examples of defensive mutualism, when one species receives protection against predators or parasites in exchange for offering shelter or food to its partner species.
The past 20 years, since this phenomenon first began receiving attention, have been marked by a deluge of research in a variety of organism kingdoms and much has been discovered about this intriguing behavior. Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis includes basic ecological and biological information on defensive mutualisms, explores how they function, and evaluates how they have evolved. It also looks at the implications of symbiosis defensive compounds as a new frontier in bioexploration for drug and natural product discovery – the first book to explore this possibility.
Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis expands the concept of defensive mutualisms to evaluate defense against environmental abiotic and biotic stresses. Addressing the topic of defensive mutualisms in microbial symbiosis across this wide spectrum, it includes chapters on defensive mutualistic associations involving multiple kingdoms of organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems – plant, animal, fungi, bacteria, and protozoans.
Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis unifies scattered findings into a single compendium, providing a valuable reference for field researchers and those in academia to assimilate and acquire a knowledgeable perspective on defensive mutualism, particularly those involving microbial partners.
OVERVIEW OF MUTUALISTIC ASSOCIATIONS AND DEFENSE
Introduction: Symbiosis, Defensive Mutualism, and Variations on the Theme, James F. White Jr. and Mónica S. Torres
Defensive Mutualism and Grass Endophytes: Still Valid after All These Years? Keith Clay
Overview of Defensive Mutualism in the Marine Environment, Chares F. Wimpee, Elizabeth A. O’Grady, and Erika L. Olson
PROKARYOTIC DEFENSIVE SYMBIONTS
Microbial Symbionts for Defense and Competition among Ciliate Hosts, Hans-Dieter Görtz, Giovanna Rosati, Michael Schweikert, Martina Schrallhammer, Gen Omura, and Toshinobu Suzaki
Bacterial Chemical Defenses of Marine Animal Hosts, Eric W. Schmidt
Is the Vibrio fi scheri–Euprymna scolopes Symbiosis a Defensive Mutualism? Eric V. Stabb and Deborah S. Millikan
Entomopathogenic Nematode and Bacteria Mutualism, Heather S. Koppenhöfer and Randy Gaugler
Interspecies Competition in a Bacteria–Nematode Mutualism, Nydia Morales-Soto, Holly Snyder, and Steven Forst
Defensive Symbionts in Aphids and Other Insects, Kerry M. Oliver and Nancy A. Moran
Fungus-Growing Ant–Microbe Symbiosis: Using Microbes to Defend Beneficial Associations within Symbiotic Communities, Michael Poulsen, Ainslie E. F. Little, and Cameron R. Currie
EUKARYOTIC DEFENSIVE SYMBIONTS
Chemical Defense in Lichen Symbioses, James D. Lawrey
Arbuscular Mycorrhizae as Defense against Pathogens, José Manuel García Garrido
Evaluation of Mycorrhizal Symbioses as Defense in Extreme Environments, John Dighton
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Enhancement of Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses, Hinanit Koltai and Yoram Kapulnik
Conifer Endophytes, Anna Maria Pirttilä and Piippa R. Wäli
Diversity and Ecological Roles of Clavicipitaceous Endophytes of Grasses, Mariusz Tadych, Mónica S. Torres, and James F. White Jr.
Contributions of Pharmaceutical Antibiotic and Secondary Metabolite Discovery to the Understanding of Microbial Defense and Antagonism, Gerald Bills, David Overy, Olga Genilloud, and Fernando Peláez
FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES AS MODEL SYSTEMS TO UNDERSTAND DEFENSIVE MUTUALISM
Extensions to and Modulation of Defensive Mutualism in Grass Endophytes, Thomas L. Bultman, Terrence J. Sullivan, Michael H. Cortez, Timothy J. Pennings, and Janet L. Andersen
Conceptual Model for the Analysis of Plant–Endophyte Symbiosis in Relation to Abiotic Stress, Gregory P. Cheplick
Habitat-Adapted Symbiosis as a Defense against Abiotic and Biotic Stresses, Rusty J. Rodriguez, Claire Woodward, Yong-Ok Kim, and Regina S. Redman
Insect Herbivory and Defensive Mutualisms between Plants and Fungi, Alison J. Popay
Fungal Endophytes: Defensive Characteristics and Implications for Agricultural Applications, Luis C. Mejía, Edward Allen Herre, Ajay P. Singh, Vartika Singh, Nicholi Vorsa, and James F. White Jr.
Endophytic Niche and Grass Defense, Charles W. Bacon, Dorothy M. Hinton, and Anthony E. Glenn
James F. White, Jr., Ph.D., is a Professor and Chair of the Plant Biology and Pathology Department in the School of Environmental & Biological Science at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. He conducts research on the biology of fungal endophytes and is the author of more than 150 articles. He is also the editor of several reference books on the biology, ecology, and evolution of fungi; and associate editor of the journal Mycologia. Dr. White was the founding Secretary of the International Symbiosis Society. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and maintains memberships in several scientific societies, including the Mycological Society of America (MSA) and the American Phytopathological Society (APS).
Mónica S. Torres, Ph.D., is currently a Post Doctoral Associate in the Department of Plant Biology and Pathology at Rutgers University, and a member of the faculty at the National University of Mar del Plata, Balcarce, Argentina. Her scientific interests are in the areas of taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution of the Clavicipitaceae and biology of fungal endophytes in natural and agricultural ecosystems.