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Today more than 5 million chemicals are known and roughly 100,000 of them are frequently used, with both numbers rising. Many of these chemicals are ultimately released into the environment and may cause adverse effects to ecosystems and human health. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a promising tool for identifying predominant toxicants in complex, mostly environmental mixtures combining effect testing, fractionation and chemical analysis. In the present book leading experts in the field provide an overview of relevant approaches and tools used in EDA. This includes diagnostic biological tools, separation techniques and advanced analytical and computer tools for toxicant identification and structure elucidation. Examples of the successful application of EDA are discussed such as the identification of mutagens in airborne particles and sediments, of endocrine disruptors in aquatic ecosystems and of major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents.
Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Effluent Testing Program Gerald T. Ankley, James R. Hockett, Donald I. Mount, David R. Mount Recent Developments in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs): Innovations in Manipulations and Endpoints Robert M Burgess, Kay T Ho, Adam D Biales, Werner Brack Considerations for Incorporating Bioavailability in Effect-Directed Analysis and Toxicity Identification Evaluation Werner Brack, Robert M Burgess Diagnostic tools for Effect-Directed Analysis of mutagens, AhR agonists and endocrine disruptors Gisela Umbuzeiro, Miroslav Machala, Jana Weiss Separation Techniques in Effect-Directed Analysis Werner Brack, Nadin Ulrich, Mahmoud Bataineh Simultaneous screening and chemical characterization of bioactive compounds using LC-MS based technologies (affinity chromatography) Martin Giera and Hubertus Irth Advanced GC-MS and LC-MS tools for structure elucidation in effect-directed analysis Pim Leonards, Rikke Brix, Damia Barcelo, and Marja Lamoree Computer Tools for Structure Elucidation in Effect-Directed Analysis Emma Schymanski, Tobias Schulze, Jos Hermans and Werner Brack Effect-directed analysis of mutagens in ambient airborne particles John L. Durant and Arthur L. Lafleur Effect-Directed Analysis of endocrine disruptors in aquatic ecosystems Corine J. Houtman, Juliette Legler, Kevin Thomas Effects-directed studies of pulp and paper mill effluents Mark Hewitt Effect-directed analysis of Ah-receptor mediated toxicants, mutagens and endocrine disruptors in sediments and biota Markus Hecker and John P. Giesy Ecological relevance of key toxicants in aquatic systems Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen, Peter von der Ohe, Stephanie Franz, Stefanie Rotter, Sergi Sabater, Dick de Zwart, Helmut Segner