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This volume focuses on the major aspects of post-transcriptional mRNA processing in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each of the described mRNA reactions is required for proper gene expression and can also serve as a control point for regulating the expression of many genes, for example during embryonic development or in different cell types. The different chapters review the assembly of newly synthesized nuclear mRNA transcripts into hnRNP particles and catalytically active spliceosomes; the structure and mechanism of action of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and protein factors that catalyse pre-mRNA splicing in mammalian cells and in yeast; the regulation of gene expression and generation of protein isoform diversity by alternative splicing; the mechanisms of 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation; the architecture of the cell nucleus in relation to these processes and to the localization of the relevant substrates and factors; the diverse mechanisms of RNA processing by ribozymes and their potential relevance for nuclear mRNA processing; the mechanism of spliced-leader addition by trans-splicing in nematodes and trypanosomes; and the process of insertion/deletion mRNA editing in kinetoplasmid protozoa. In each chapter, leading researchers have provided detailed, critical reviews of the history, experimental approaches, major advances, current ideas and models, as well as future directions, for each of these active areas of research.