The main objective of this book is to contribute to the existing knowledge and practical application of modern technologies for exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution with emphasis on methodologies and the models used for environmental security.
Particular attention is paid to models useful for the quantitative and qualitative identification, estimation of exposure and risk. Stress is given to the computational modelling technology achievements for environmental fate, exposure, hazard, and risk assessment of chemical pollutants in air, water, soil and biota; to the estimation of the screening level risk assessment modelling to assess and prioritize chemicals; to the evaluation of the probabilistic risk assessment methods for intentional pollution to help the risk managers in uncontrollable processes; to the review of the approaches for modelling of adverse health and environmental effects; to the comparative evaluation of currently used models on the criteria of sensitivity, variability and uncertainty; and, to the evaluation of the additional criteria as predictive value, advantages, validations and limitations of models.
Research needs in this complex scientific field are identified and the strategy for prediction and prevention of chemical threats originating from intentional pollution are outlined.
Preface.- Acknowledgements.- List of contributors.- New Versus Classic Approaches for Chemical Risk Assessment and Management; M. A. Hassanien.- Dose Response Extrapolation for Acute Effects of Toxic Agents and its Relevance to Predict Health Risk Related to Disaster and Terrorism Associated Events; T. Lewandowski, L. Rhomberg.-Modeling Multimedia Pollution for Environmental Exposure; M. de Lurdes Dinis, A. Fiuza.- Risk Assessment of Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants in the Environment; E. Chirila, C. Dragichi.- Mass Balance Models for Chemical Fate, Bioaccumulation, Exposure and Risk Assessment; J.Arnot.- Exposure and Risk Assessment Modeling to Screen and Commercial Chemical Inventories; J. Arnot.- Methodology for Exposure and Risk Assessment in Complex Environmental Pollution Situations; M. de Lurdes Dinis, A. Fiuza.- Risk Assessment Approaches for Dealing with Unusual Chemicals and Non-standard Exposures; T. Lewandowski.- Assessment of the Effect Potential of Environmental Chemicals; H.-M. Mulisch, W. Winter, H. H. Dieter.- Modeling Chemical Exposures in Risk Assessment; T. Lewandowski.- Complex Characterization of Polluted Samples; C. Dragichi, E. Chirila.- Modeling of Contaminants in Aquatic Environment; I.Dimitrova.- Tentative Hazard Assessment of Industrial Facilities; G.A. Dura et al.- Ecological Approach to Evaluate Effects of Chemical Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater; Z. Filip, K. Demnerova. Environmental Epidemiology as a Method for Risk Assessment of Chemical Pollution; L. Simeonov.- The Use of Biomarkers in the Toxicological Risk Assessment; I. Kiss.- Humic Substances as Natural Interacting Agents -- Their Characteristics and Possible Fate in Environment; Z. Filip, K. Demnerova.- Environmental Microbiology, Soil Science, Nanoscience -- A Planetary View; Z. Filip.- Environmental Effect Assessment of Organic PBT Compounds;T. Molnar, G. Dura.- Risk Estimates of Air Pollutants in Developing Countries; Mahmoud A. Hassanien.- Inhalation Intake Assessment of Air Pollutants Exposure Over Cairo, Egypt; M. A. Hassanien et al.- Water Quality Assessment and Control in Bulgaria; E. Angelova.- Risk Assessment of Oil Marine Pollution; I. Enache, S. Zagan.- Case Study on Gas Station Environmental Qualitative Risk Assessment; C. Jelesku et al.- Environmental Risks Associated to the Use of Cyanide Technology for Gold Extraction in Romania; L. Stefanescu et al.- Exposure and Risk Assessment of Environmental Nitric Oxides in Tumor Progression; V. Mikhailenko et al.- Blood Lead Levels in Schoolchildren from Veles, Related to the Ambient Air Pollution by Lead; M. Kochubovski.- Evaluation of the Risk of Underground Water's Action upon Human Health of Population in Municipality Chisinau; R. Russu, S. Cebanu.- Occurrence and Associated Risk of Nitrates/Nitrites in the Groundwaters from the North-Eastern Part of Romania; D. Cailean et al.- New Technologies for Nitriite and Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water Envisaging the Diminution of Human Health Risk; D. Sonea et al.- About the Contents of Nitrates in Vegetal Flood-stuffs in Municipality of Chisinau; G. Friptuleac et al.- Chlorosis Risk Evaluation from a New Viticulture Area Located on a Former Army Region; N. Lupascu et al.- Pesticide Residues Determination in Vegetables from Romania by GC-ECD; A. Soceanu et al.- Heavy Metals and Pesticides Analysis from Black Sea Algae; S. Lupsor et al.- Novel Daphnia Test for Detecting Chemical Pollution; A. cs et al.- Flood Risks in Agricultural Areas along Mesta River; D. Shopova et al.- Assessment of Land Pollution and Policy Analysis for Secure Development Strategies in Armenia; Y. Suvaryan et al.- Using a Decision Support Software in the Course of the Planning of a Waste Management System in Hungary; A. Czerny et al.- Examination of Condition of Small Streams and Results Displaying in Environmental Information System; Z. Kovacs et al.- Educational Approach of Safety and Risk Assessment Courses at Master Program; M. Sica et al.- Case Study of the Risk Assessment of Nitrates on Human Health in the West Side of Romania; C. Proca et al.- Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Nearby Mettalurgical Plant Kremikovtzi; A. Dimitrova et al.- Subject Index.-