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Academic & Professional Books  Palaeontology  Palaeozoology & Extinctions

Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation A Diverse Middle Devonian Biota from Wisconsin, USA

By: Kenneth C Gass(Author), Joanne Kluessendorf(Author), Donald G Mikulic(Author), Carlton E Brett(Author)
224 pages, 350+ colour photos and colour illustrations
Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation
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  • Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation ISBN: 9780995749672 Paperback May 2019 Usually dispatched within 1 week
Price: £24.99
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About this book

Easily overlooked due to its extremely limited exposure and geographic extent, the Milwaukee Formation seldom comes up in discussions of Devonian paleontology or geology. In spite of this, it contains one of the most rich and diverse Devonian biotas in North America. Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation: A Diverse Middle Devonian Biota from Wisconsin, USA re-examines this virtually forgotten occurrence, compiling all known species, as well as major taxa not previously recorded from this formation, and presents several significant new interpretations. The book covers roughly 250 species from four kingdoms and includes nearly 600 photographs of foraminifers, echinoderms, graptolites, conodonts, a wide range of fishes, a multitude of shelly and encrusting animals, trace fossils, and even terrestrial organisms that washed into the sea. Fossils previously thought to be of forms of brown algae are shown to be, in one case, bark from trees of some of Earth's first forests, and in another case, a type of terrestrial fungus that may have reached the height of a two-story building.

The authors also use the Milwaukee Formation's fossils to help illustrate many geological processes and topics in biological science, pointing out that some of those fossils even helped support the theory of punctuated equilibria. The book includes sections on stratigraphy, fossil collecting in the Milwaukee Formation, preparation methods, major collections, and a detailed section on Milwaukee's cement industry, which was crucial in accumulating the majority of the Milwaukee Formation's fossils. The book particularly stresses the need for modern analysis of these fossils for their value in what else it may teach us about this biota and what that may add to the body of geologic knowledge. It thus serves as a call to action for researchers by pointing out this need and stating where the major collections are located. A comprehensive glossary is provided for technical terms that are not defined in the text.

Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation will be of interest to fossil enthusiasts, students, professional paleontologists, biologists, academics, as well as historians.


Chapter 1 - Cementing its Place in History
Chapter 2 - Stratigraphy
      Geology, Paleoenvironment, and Paleobiology
      Thiensville Formation
      Milwaukee Formation
      Antrim Shale
Chapter 3 - Life in Devonian Milwaukee
      Water Depth
      Light Intensity
      Substrates and Sedimentation
      Environmental Energy
      Modes of Life of Devonian Organisms and Community Paleoecology
      Brachiopod Life Modes
      Bryozoan Life Modes
      Echinoderm Life Modes
      Mollusk Life Modes
      Arthropod Life Modes
      Infauna Life Modes
      Nektonic Life Modes
      Planktonic Life Modes
      Terrestrial Life Modes
      Organism Interactions
Chapter 4 - Taphonomy
      Skeletal Minerals and Preservation
      Calcite and Aragonite
      Chitin and Other Organic Materials
      Modes of Alteration of Skeletons
      Internal / External Molds
      Cavity Formation and Geodization
      Preservation of Color Patterns
      Trace Fossils
      Life and Death Assemblages
      Quality of Preservation
Chapter 5 - Foraminifers, Ostracods, and Other Microorganisms
Chapter 6 - Conulariids
Chapter 7 - Rugose Corals
Chapter 8 - Tabulate Corals
Chapter 9 - Tentaculitoids
Chapter 10 - Bryozoans
Chapter 11 - Hederelloids
Chapter 12 - Brachiopods
Chapter 13 - Hyoliths
Chapter 14 - Mollusks
Chapter 15 - Annelid Worms
Chapter 16 - Arthropods
Chapter 17 - Crinoids, Blastoids, and Edrioasteroids
Chapter 18 - Dendroid Graptolites
Chapter 19 - Conodonts
Chapter 20 - Fishes
Chapter 21 - Fungi
Chapter 22 - Land Plants
Chapter 23 - Trace Fossils
Chapter 24 - Unidentified Body Fossils
Chapter 25 - Fossil Collecting in the Milwaukee Formation
Chapter 26 - Preparation Methods
Chapter 27 - Major Collections
      Increase A. Lapham
      Thomas A. Greene
      Charles E. Monroe
      Edgar E. Teller
      Gilbert O. Raasch
Chapter 28 - The Cement that Made Milwaukee Famous
      Stone for Construction
      Natural Cement
      Geology and Mineral Resources
      The Origins of the Milwaukee Cement Industry
      The Milwaukee Cement Company
      The End of the Industry
      The Quarry Sites After the Close of the Industry
Index to the Species, Subspecies, Unnamed Species, and Ichnospecies Cited in the Text

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By: Kenneth C Gass(Author), Joanne Kluessendorf(Author), Donald G Mikulic(Author), Carlton E Brett(Author)
224 pages, 350+ colour photos and colour illustrations
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