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About this book
About this book
This volume brings together practical techniques for detecting and measuring free radicals - the reactive, short-lived molecules now known to play an important role in a large number of human diseases, including heart disease and cancer - and for studying their effects. Consequently, their study in biological systems has increased enormously in recent years, and this book may be of interest to a wide cross-section of biochemists and clinicians.
Introduction; 1. Direct and indirect measurements of free radicals by physico-chemical methods; 1.1 In vitro and in vivo detection of free radicals metabolites with electron spin resonance; 1.2 The application of high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the detection of products arising from the reactions of free radicals in chemical model systems, biosystems, and foodstuffs; 2. Direct and indirect measurement of free radicals by other methods; 2.1 Intrinsic (low-level) chemiluminescence; 2.2 Visual assessment of oxidative stress by multifunctional digital microfluorography; 2.3 Salicylic acid and phenylalanine as probes to detect hydroxyl radicals; 3. Measurement of free radical products; 3.1 Lipids (i): peroxides and other products; 3.2 Lipids (ii): quantitative analysis of 4-hydroxyl 2-nonenal; 3.3 Lipids (iii): F2-isoprostanes: prostaglandin-like products of lipid peroxidation; 3.4 Proteins (i): determination of carbonyl groups in oxidized proteins; 3.5 Proteins (ii): protein hydroperoxides, protein hydroxides, and protein-bound DOPA; 3.6 Carbohydrates: investigating the effects of oxygen free radicals and carbohydrates in biological systems; 3.7 Nucleic acids: measurement of products of free radical attack on nucleic acids; 4. Measurement of antioxidants; 4.1 Glutathione; 4.2 Glutathione peroxidase: activity and steady-state level of mRBA; 4.3 Superoxide dismutase; 4.4 Application of deuterium labelling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the measurement of vitamin E bioavailability in tissue and body fluids; 4.5 Selective and sensitive measurement of vitamin C, ubiquinol-10, and other low molecular weight antioxidants; 4.6 Measurement of antioxidant gene expression; Appendix