Ghana’s freshwater ﬁsh fauna includes 28 families, 73 genera and 157 species. Of the species, 121 have been recorded from the Volta system (Ghanian part) which drains more than two thirds of the country. The Volta system in Ghana includes the Volta river, the Volta lake and their tributaries, such as, rivers Oti, Pru, White Volta, Black Volta and Asukawkaw.
Outside the Volta system, the major inland water system of Ghana includes the Densu, Ayensu, Okye, Kakum, Pra, Ankobra, Tano and Bia river basins and Lake Bosumtwi.
Nine species viz. Barbus subinensis (Cyprinidae), Irvinea voltae (Schilbeidae), Chrysichthys walkeri (Claroteidae), Synodontis arnoulti, S. macrophthalmus, Synodontis velifer (Mochokidae), Limbochromis robertsi, Steatocranus irvinea (Cichlidae) and Aethiomastacembelus praensis (Mastacembelidae) are endemic to freshwater systems of Ghana.
Economically, 81 species are of food importance. Species of culture importance include Heterotis niloticus (Osteoglossidae), Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longiﬁlis (Clariidae), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Claroteidae), Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) and Lates niloticus (Centropomidae). Some species need to be protected because of their restricted distribution or their habitat degradation or destruction.