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About this book
About this book
Pack-ice can cover up to 13% of the Earth's surface which makes it one of the major habitat types on the planet. The text concerns the ice itself, its flora and fauna and ecology, and is accompanied by impressive photos of the author's visits to polar regions.
Contents; Preface; Chapter 1: What is pack ice? Icebergs vs pack ice; Chapter 2: What happens to seawater when it freezes? How sea ice is really like a brine filled sponge, permeated by a labyrinth of channels and pores. Different types of pack ice; Growth, breaking up of, how long it lasts; Chapter 3. Pack ice regions of the world; Global ice coverage; Differences between Arctic and Antarctic; Baltic, Caspian and White Seas; How important sea ice formation is for driving ocean circulation; How important sea ice formation is for driving climate patterns; The possible effects of global climate change on gross distribution of sea ice at the poles; Chapter 4: Life within a block of ice; The microbiology of organisms that live in sea ice; Tolerance and survival; The importance of sea ice organisms for the plankton of; The ice covered seas and oceans; Chapter 5: Microbiology inside the ice; Algae; Viruses and bacteria; Protozoa; Chapter 6: Animals in and around the ice; Copepods; Krill, the key to the Southern Ocean ecosystem; Fish, in particular ice fish with antifreeze proteins; Chapter 7: Life under the ice; benthic communities of slow growing giant invertebrates; communities of seaweeds at their tolerance limits under the ice. Chapter 8: Mammals, birds and the ice; Polar bears; Seals (various species will be discussed); Whales (various species will be discussed); Polar foxes; Petrels and other birds associated with ice; Penguins (various species will be discussed; Chapter 9: Studying the pack ice; Historical introduction to the exploration of polar regions; From the early days to modern day expeditions and ice camps; Problems of working in the pack ice; Chapter 10: Pack ice - threats and potential; Conservation of polar regions; Exploitation of mineral resources; Tourism pressure; Scientific pressures and the possibility to study ice processes in large scale experimental establishments in which ice processes can be simulated. Treaties and organisations trying to preserve polar regions; Glossary; Bibliography; Index
David Thomas is a marine biologist at the University of Wales, Bangor, and has worked in polar regions since 1991. He has conducted several expeditions to the Antarctic and the Arctic and carried out research into the pack ice of the Baltic Sea. He has written popular science features about sea ice for Science, BBC Wildlife Magazine and New Scientist, and is author of Seaweeds (Natural History Musem, 2002) and the academic edition An Introduction to Sea Ice (Blackwells Scientific, 2003).