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Introduction: genetically modified organisms; a brief history. Techniques of creating GMOs: isolation of a functional gene; construction of chimeric genes and selectable marker genes; operations of gene transfer; essential controls; stability, heritability and dispersal of the transgene. Research programmes and results: objectives of research programmes; achievements in fundamenal research; achievements in applied research. GMOs - concerns and remedies: questions raised by the existence of GMOs; response of society - regulatory and judicial framework for GMOs; conclusion - what is the future of GMOs?