This book was conceived in conjunction with the international Conference on Borneo Book Publishing 2017. The conference attracted over a hundred participants from various government and private institutions, including academicians, researchers, school teachers, postgraduate and undergraduate students. This book reflects the strength and scholarships of local academicians on both field and laboratory-based research on Malaysian Borneo biodiversity. It also showcases the authors’ major and recent findings on the various topics related to the ecology, taxonomy. and diversity of flora and fauna on this island. One of the biggest challenges for local scientists to perform research on the land of the hornbills (Sarawak) and land below the wind (Sabah is the difficulty to explore countless inaccessible areas with physico-geographical barriers such as mountainous terrains and river basins. Besides, the lack of financial suport and skilled manpower to deploy field excursions, inadequate state-of-the-art field equipment, and laboratory facilities are among other major limitations faced by local researchers. However, these do not hinder the passion and determination of researchers to continue to explore the biodiversity of this island.