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Awareness of the existence and importance of groundwater is often not well known and, as a consequence, measures to protect and manage it sustainably are either not taken or taken too late. "Groundwater Monitoring" collects state-of-the-art information on groundwater quality assessment monitoring, making this an important resource for those tasked with ensuring proper quality assessment. This comprehensive text also discusses monitoring in the regulatory and international context; conceptual modeling and network design; pollutants and other pressures; quality standards and trend assessment; and, case studies in the light of recent EU legislation.
Foreword Series Preface Preface The Series Editor - Philippe Quevauviller List of Contributors PART ONE: GROUNDWATER MONITORING IN THE REGULATORY AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT Chapter 1.1 General introduction: objectives of groundwater assessment and monitoring Johannes Grath, Rob Ward, Andreas Scheidleder and Philippe Quevauviller 1.1.1 Introduction 1.1.2 The role of groundwater 1.1.3 Groundwater protection needs and objectives 1.1.4 Groundwater chemical monitoring 1.1.5 Groundwater quality assessment and classification 1.1.6 Conclusions References Chapter 1.2 Groundwater monitoring in international conventions and agreements Raya Stephan 1.2.1 Introduction 1.2.2 Monitoring obligation in framework instruments 1.2.3 Monitoring obligation in specific legislation 1.2.4 Monitoring in aquifer and river basin agreements 1.2.5 Conclusions References Chapter 1.3 Groundwater monitoring approaches at international level John Chilton 1.3.1 Introduction 1.3.2 The US National Water-Quality assessment programme 1.3.3 Other national programmes 1.3.4 Drinking Water Guidelines and Standards 1.3.5 Groundwater quality assessment within the UN System References PART TWO: CONCEPTUAL MODELLING AND NETWORK DESIGN Chapter 2.1 Conceptual modelling and identification of receptors as a basis for groundwater quality assessment Cath Tomlin and Rob Ward 2.1.1 Legislative requirements for protecting and assessing groundwater quality 2.1.2 The role of groundwater monitoring 2.1.3 Conclusions References Chapter 2.2 Aquifer typology, (bio)geochemical processes and pollutants behaviour Helene Pauwels, Wolfram Kloppmann, Kristine Walraevens and Frank Wendland 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 Purpose and description of proposed typology 2.2.3 Typology to assess the behaviour and fate of pollutants as a function of groundwater chemical composition 2.2.4 Examples of reactions occurring in aquifers under anthropogenic pressure 2.2.5 Conclusions References
Chapter 2.3 Visualising Groundwater - Aiding Understanding Using 3-D Images Donal Daly, S. Fletcher, N. Hunter Williams, S. Neale and H. Simcox 2.3.1 Background 2.3.2 Providing a Solution 2.3.3 Objectives of the Groundwater Concepts Communications Package 2.3.4 Creation of the Image Library 2.3.5 Image Delivery 2.3.6 Future Plans 2.3.7 Conclusions Acknowledgements References PART THREE: GROUNDWATER POLLUTANTS AND OTHER PRESSURES Chapter 3.1 Occurrence and behaviour of main inorganic pollutants in European groundwater Pieter-Jan van Helvoort, Jasper Griffioen and Mike Edmunds 3.1.1 Introduction 3.1.2 Aluminium 3.1.3 Arsenic 3.1.4 Chloride 3.1.5 Mercury 3.1.6 Nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) 3.1.7 Sulphate 3.1.8 Trace metals: zinc, cadmium, copper, lead and nickel 3.1.9 Concluding remarks References Chapter 3.2 Contaminant behaviour of micro-organics in groundwater Jan Gerritse, Bas van der Grift and Alette Langenhoff 3.2.1 Introduction 3.2.2 Sorption of micro-organics in groundwater 3.2.3 Biodegradation of micro-organics in groundwater 3.2.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons 3.2.5 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) 3.2.6 Chlorinated aliphatics 3.2.7 Chlorinated aromatics 3.2.8 Substituted phenols 3.2.9 Pesticides 3.2.10 Other organic compounds 3.2.11 Conclusions and outlook References Chapter 3.3 Background levels under the Water Framework Directive Ariane Blum, Helene Pauwels, Frank Wenland and Jasper Griffioen 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Approaches for determining groundwater background levels 3.3.3 Proposal for a procedure to derive background levels under the WFD/GWD 3.3.4 Conclusion and perspectives for groundwater monitoring References Chapter 3.4 Quantitative stresses and monitoring obligations Emilio Custodio, Andres Sahuquillo and M. Ramon Llamas 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2 Groundwater quantity and good groundwater status 3.4.3 Impact of groundwater developments 3.4.4 Definitions of groundwater quantity 3.4.5 Delayed effects in aquifers 3.4.6 Monitoring of groundwater quantitative status 3.4.7 Aquifer management as a tool to groundwater quantity status compliance 3.4.8 Groundwater quantity status and the WFD - Concluding remarks References PART FOUR: GROUNDWATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND TREND ASSESSMENT Chapter 4.1 Threshold values and the role of monitoring in assessing chemical status compliance Ariane Blum, Helene Legrand, Johannes Grath, Andreas Scheidleder, Hans-Peter Broers, Cath Tomlin and Rob Ward 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Threshold values and chemical status assessment: legal background 4.1.3 Methodology to derive threshold values under the WFD/GWD 4.1.4 Threshold values, chemical status compliance and monitoring: relationships and limits 4.1.5 Conclusions and perspectives 4.1.6 References Chapter 4.2 Assessing and aggregating trends in groundwater quality Hans Peter Broers, Ate Visser, John P. Chilton and Marianne E. Stuart 4.2.1 Legislative reasons for performing trend analysis 4.2.2 Scope and trend definition 4.2.3 Trends in relation to pressures, monitoring strategies and properties of groundwater systems 4.2.4 Aggregation of trends at the groundwater body scale 4.2.5 Trend detection at drinking water abstraction sites 4.2.6 Conclusions References PART FIVE: CASE STUDIES FOR GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN THE LIGHT OF EU LEGISLATION Chapter 5.1 Groundwater monitoring in Denmark and the Odense pilot river basin in relation to EU legislation Klaus Hinsby and Lisbeth Flindt Jorgensen 5.1.1 Introduction 5.1.2 History of the Danish groundwater monitoring programme 5.1.3 Principles of groundwater monitoring sites 5.1.4 Groundwater monitoring for protection of legitimate uses 5.1.5 Groundwater monitoring for protection of associated aquatic ecosystems - the case of the Odense Pilot River Basin 5.1.6 Discussion 5.1.7 Conclusions, perspectives References Chapter 5.2 Upper Rhine Ralf Kunkel, G. Berthold, Ariane Blum, H.-G. Fritsche and Frank Wenland 5.2.1 Case study area 5.2.2 Data base 5.2.3 Derivation of natural background levels 5.2.4 Results and discussion References Chapter 5.3 The Colli Albani volcanic aquifers in Central Italy Alfredo Di Domenicantonio, Manuela Ruisi and Paolo Traversa 5.3.1 Introduction 5.3.2 Characterisation of groundwater bodies 5.3.3 Pressures and impacts 5.3.4 First assessment of groundwater chemical status 5.3.5 Conclusion References Chapter 5.4 Monitoring the environmental supporting conditions of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems in Ireland Garrett Kilroy, Catherine Coxon, Donal Daly, Aine O'Connor, Fiona Dunne, Paul Johnston, Jim Ryan, Henning Moe and Matthew Craig 5.4.1 Introduction 5.4.2 Groundwater Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems in Ireland 5.4.3 A Conceptual framework for assessing the environmental supporting conditions of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems 5.4.4 Application of the conceptual framework to case studies 5.4.5 Discussion and Conclusions References Chapter 5.5 Use of WETMECS Typology to Aid Understanding of Groundwater-Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems in England and Wales Mark Whiteman, Bryan Wheeler, Sue Shaw, Tim Lewis, Mark Grout and Kathryn Tanner 5.5.1 Introduction 5.5.2 WETMECS as conceptual models 5.5.3 Practical uses of WETMECS 5.5.4 Some examples of the uses of WETMECS 5.5.5 Discussion 5.5.6 Conclusions References Chapter 5.6 Groundwater quality and quantity assessment through a dedicated monitoring network. The Donana aquifer experience (SW Spain) Marisol Manzano, Emilio Custodio, Carlos Montes and Carlos Mediavilla 5.6.1 Introduction 5.6.2 Background to aquifer geology and hydrogeology 5.6.3 Needs and design of a dedicated observation network 5.6.4 Operational results of the new monitoring network: successes and failures 5.6.5 Discussion and conclusions References Chapter 5.7 Llobregat delta aquifer Josep Ma Ninerola, Enric Queralt and Emilio Custodio 5.7.1 Introduction 5.7.2 Aquifer description 5.7.3 Aquifer status 5.7.4 Issues related to the European Water Framework Directive 5.7.5 Action accomplished and under way 5.7.6 Conclusions References Chapter 5.8 Determination of natural background levels and thresholds values in the Neogene Aquifer (Flanders) Marleen Coetsiers and Kristine Walraevens 5.8.1 Introduction 5.8.2 Characterization of the groundwater body 5.8.3 Groundwater status evaluation by threshold values 5.8.4 Conclusions References PART SIX: GROUNDWATER MEASUREMENTS Chapter 6.1 Metrological principles applied to groundwater assessment and monitoring Philippe Quevauviller, Ariane Blum and Stephane Roy 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Meaning of traceability regarding groundwater measurements 6.1.3 Relevant metrological features linked to groundwater monitoring 6.1.4 Conclusions References Chapter 6.2 Use of isotopes for groundwater characterisation and monitoring Philippe Negrel, Emmanuelle Petelet-Giraud and Agnes Brenot 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Isotopes: a way to characterize and monitor groundwater 6.2.3 Isotopes tools to characterize the groundwater bodies: example of the CARISMEAU Research project (SW France) 6.2.4 How to choose the isotope tool to answer a question 6.2.5 Variability during a hydrologic cycle: a way for managing the groundwater resources References PART SEVEN: ASSOCIATING EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Chapter 7.1 Groundwater teaching at university level in Spain Emilio Custodio, Antoni Gurgui and Eduard Batista 7.1.1 Introduction 7.1.2 The Spanish experience 7.1.3 The International Course on Groundwater Hydrology 7.1.4 Evolution of knowledge needs 7.1.5 Taking into account the Water Framework Directive needs 7.1.6 Tools to diffuse hydrogeological knowledge References Chapter 7.2 Factoring in expertise: International scientific networks - Roles and benefits Philippe Quevauviller, Alice Aureli, Stephen Foster, Patrice Christmann and Neno Kukuric 7.2.1 Need for stakeholder involvement in the environmental policy process 7.2.2 EU Groundwater policy and related implementation expert groups 7.2.3 European network of geological surveys - EuroGeoSurveys 7.2.4 The International Hydrogeological Programme of UNESCO 7.2.5 IAH - The worldwide professional community for groundwater 7.2.6 International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre 7.2.7 Roles and benefits of the various networks - Perspectives for future collaborations References Chapter 7.3 Communication of groundwater realities based on assessment and monitoring data Juan Grima, Enrique Chacon, Bruno Ballesteros, Ramiro Rodriguez and Juan Angel Mejia 7.3.1 Introduction 7.3.2 Key elements for getting the whole picture 7.3.3 Analysis and assessment of data 7.3.4 Communication process and interaction with stakeholders 7.3.5 Discussions and conclusions References Index