Leading experts in the field bring together diverse aspects of insect timing mechanisms. This work combines three topics that are central to the understanding of biological timing in insects: circadian rhythms, photoperiodism, and diapause. The common theme underlining each of the contributions to this book is an understanding of the timing of events in the insect life cycle. Most daily activities (emergence, feeding, mating, egg laying, etc.) undertaken by insects occur at precise times each day. Likewise, seasonal events such as the entry into or termination from an overwintering dormancy (diapause) occur at distinct times of the year. This book documents such events and provides an up-to-date interpretation of the molecular and physiological events undergirding these activities. The study of circadian rhythms has undergone a flowering in recent years with the molecular dissection of the components of the circadian clock. Now that many of the clock genes have been identified it is possible to track daily patterns of clock-related mRNAs and proteins to link the entraining light cycles with molecular oscillations within the cell. Insect experiments have led the way in demonstrating that the concept of a "master clock" can no longer be used to explain the temporal organization within an animal. Insects have a multitude of cellular clocks that can function independently and retain their function under organ culture conditions, and they thus offer a premier system for studying how the hierarchical organization of clocks results in the overall temporal organization of the animal. Photoperiodism, and its most obvious manifestation, diapause, does not yet have the molecular underpinning that has been established for circadian rhythms, but recent studies are beginning to identify genes that appear to be involved in the regulation of diapause. Overall, the book presents the rich diversity of challenges and opportunities provided by insects for the study of timing mechanisms.
Preface. Foreword (J.W. Truman). 1. The blow fly Calliphora vicina: a "clock-work" insect (D.S. Saunders). 2. Molecular control of Drosophila circadian rhythms (P. Schotland, A. Sehgal). 3. Organization of the insect circadian system: spatial and developmental expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues of Drosophila melanogaster (J.M. Giebultowicz, M. Ivanchenko, T. Vollintine). 4. The circadian clock system of hemimetabolous insects (K. Tomioka, A.S.M. Saifullah, M. Koga). 5. Cellular circadian rhythms in the fly's visual system (E. Pyza). 6. Anatomy and functions of the brain neurosecretory neurons with regard to reproductive diapause in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae (S. Shiga, H. Numata). 7. Photoperiodism and seasonality in aphids (J. Hardie). 8. Photoperiodic time measurement and shift of the critical photoperiod for diapause induction in a moth (S. Masaki, Y. Kimura). 9. Geographical strains and selection for the diapause trait in Calliphora vicina (D.S. Saunders). 10. Evolutionary aspects of photoperiodism in Drosophila (M.T. Kimura). 11. Molecular analysis of overwintering diapause (S.R. Palli, R. Kothapalli, Q. Feng, T. Ladd, S.C. Perera, S.-C. Zheng, K. Gojtan, A.S.D. Pang, M. Primavera, W. Tomkins, A. Retnakaran). 12. Insights for future studies on embryonic diapause promoted by molecular analyses of diapause hormone and its action in Bombyx mori (O. Yamashita, K. Shiomi, Y. Ishida, N. Katagiri, T. Niimi). 13. Stress proteins: a role in insect diapause? (D.L. Denlinger, J.P. Rinehart, G.D. Yocum). 14. Regulation of the cell cycle during diapause (S.P. Tammariello). 15. Significance of specific factors produced throughout diapause in pharate first instar larvae and adults (K. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, Y. An). 16. Surviving winter with antifreeze proteins: studies on budworms and beetles (V.K. Walker, M.J. Kuiper, M.G. Tyshenko, D. Doucet, S.P. Graether, Y.-C. Liou, B.D. Sykes, Z. Jia, P.L. Davies, L.A. Graham). 17. Using ice-nucleating bacteria to reduce winter survival of Colorado potato beetles: development of a novel strategy for biological control (R.E. Lee, Jr., L.A. Castrillo, M.R. Lee, J.A. Wyman, J.P. Costanzo). Species index. Subject index.