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About this book
About this book
This text offers an integrated approach to understanding environmental toxicology that emphasizes scale and context as important factors in understanding effects and management options.
Introduction to Environmental Toxicology Environmental Toxicology as an Interdisciplinary Science A Brief History and Organizations in Environmental Toxicology Interactions and Connections of Environmental Toxicology to the Management of Ecological Systems Legislation Introduction to This Textbook Study Questions Frameworks and Paradigms for Environmental Toxicology The Fundamentals Models Fundamental Models for Environmental Toxicology The Classical Viewpoint for Classifying Toxicological Effects Chemical Physical--Chemical Characteristics Bioaccumulation/Biotransformation/Biodegradation Receptors and the Mode of Action Biochemical and Molecular Effects Physiological and Behavioral Effects Population Parameters Community Effects Ecosystem Effects An Alternative Framework Incorporating Complexity Theory Spatial and Temporal Scales Combining Scale and Ecological Dynamics: The Hierarchical Patch Dynamic Paradigm Strategy and Tactics in the Use of Models in Environmental Toxicology Study Questions References and Suggested Readings An Introduction to Toxicity Testing Introduction The Dose-Responsive Curve Thresholds and Hormesis Terminology Based upon Hypothesis Testing Classification of Toxicity Tests Design Parameters for Single-Species Toxicity Tests Limitations and Alternatives to Hypothesis Testing Commonly Used Methods for the Calculation of Endpoints Comparison of Calculations of Several Programs for Calculating Probit Analysis Hypothesis Testing Curve Fitting and Regression Modeling versus Hypothesis Testing The Design of Multispecies Toxicity Tests Univariate Methods Multivariate Methods Visualization Summary of Design Guidelines for Multispecies Toxicity Tests Standard Methods Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Survey and Review of Typical Toxicity Test Methods Introduction Animal Care and Use Considerations Single-Species Toxicity Tests Multispecies Toxicity Tests Summary Study Questions Appendix 4.1: The Natural History and Utilization of Selected Test Species The Fate and Transport of Contaminants Introduction Transport Mechanisms Persistence Biotransport Abiotic Degradation/Transformation Multimedia Box Models Equilibrium The Fugacity Approach Bioconcentration versus Biomagnification Bioavailability Summary Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Uptake and Modes of Action The Damage Process Atmospheric Pollutants and Plants Mechanisms of Action Specific Modes of Action in Detail Receptor-Mediated Toxicity, Endocrine Disruption Introduction to QSAR Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Factors Modifying the Activity of Toxicants Introduction Physicochemical Properties of Pollutants Time and Mode of Exposure Environmental Factors Interaction of Pollutants Toxicity of Mixtures Biological Factors Affecting ToxicityStudy Questions References and Suggested Readings Inorganic Gaseous PollutantsSulfur Oxides Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Carbon Monoxide Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Fluoride as a Contaminant of Developing Economies Environmental Sources and Forms of Fluoride Industrial Sources of Fluoride Pollution Effect on Plants Effect on Animals Effect on Human Health Biochemical Effect Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Heavy Metals Introduction Lead Cadmium Mercury Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Biotransformation, Detoxification, and Biodegradation Introduction Metabolism of Environmental Chemicals: Biotransformation Types of Biotransformation Mechanisms of Biotransformation Consequences of Biotransformation Microbial Degradation Bioremediation An Example of a Detoxification Enzyme: The Organophosphate Acid (OPA) Anhydrolases Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Ecological Effects from Biomarkers to Populations Introduction Terminology and Context The Key to Context: The Hierarchical Patch Dynamics Paradigm Measurement of Ecological Effects at Various Scales or Levels of Biological Organization Bioaccumulation/Biotransformation/Biodegradation Molecular and Physiological Indicators of Chemical Stress Biomarkers Assemblage and Community Parameters Effects at the Population Scale Interacting Populations in a Patchy Environment The Importance of Patch Dynamics Implications Appendix: Age-Structured Population Modeling in Detail Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Ecological Effects: Community to Landscape Scales of Toxicological Impacts Introduction Community Effects Effects on Ecosystems or Ecological Structures Application of Multivariate Techniques Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance Interpretation of Ecosystem Level Impacts An Alternative Model: The Community Conditioning Hypothesis The Design of Field Studies Making Decisions Appendix: Multivariate Techniques--Nonmetric Clustering Study Questions References and Suggested Readings Ecological Risk Assessment Introduction Basics of Risk Assessment Ecological Risk Assessment Ecological Risk Assessment Framework Risk Characterization Techniques in Ecological Risk AssessmentStudy Questions References and Suggested Readings Appendix A: References for Toxicity Testing and Interpretation, Compiled by April J. Markiewicz Index
Western Washington University, Bellingham, USA Western Washington University, Bellingham, USA
488 pages, col illus
Praise for the Second Edition: "Buy the book, read it, and learn from it. This book genuinely helps to unify and clarify the ecotoxicology field, and as such joins a select few titles bringing coherence to a complex scientific arena. I hope that the authors will keep carefully revised and updated editions in circulation for many years to come." --P.G. Wells, Environmental Conservation Branch, Environment Canada, in Ecotoxicology, Vol. 9, No.3