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About this book
About this book
As the expansion in world aquaculture continues at a very high rate, so does the need for information on feeding of cultivated fish and shellfish. In the larval and juvenile phases of many species, the use of manufactured feed is not possible. This important book covers in detail the biology and culture of the main live prey and microalgae used as feeds in the aquaculture of major commercial species including shrimps, sea bass, halibut, cod and bivalves. Contents include comprehensive details of the status of marine aquaculture in relation to live prey, and chapters covering the biology, production, harvesting, processing and nutritional value of microalgae and the main prey species: rotifers, Artemia and copepods. The editors have drawn together an impressive international team of contributors, providing a work that is set to become the standard reference and practical guide on the subject for many years to come. Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is an essential purchase for anyone involved in marine aquaculture, including fish farmers, researchers, and personnel in feed and equipment companies supplying the aquaculture trade. An extremely valuable tool as a reference and practical manual for students and professionals alike; libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and aquatic sciences and aquaculture are studied and taught, should have copies available on their shelves.
Status of marine aquaculture in relation to live prey: past, present and future. 1.1 An historical perspective 1.2 Marine aquaculture today and in the future 1.3 The status of larviculture and live feed usage 1.4 Why is live feed necessary? 1.5 Problems and prospects with alternatives to live feed 1.6 Conclusions 1.7 References Production and nutritional value of rotifers. 2.1 General introduction 2.2 Biology and morphological characteristics of rotifers: 2.2.1 General biology 2.2.2 Taxonomy 18.104.22.168 The genus Brachionus 2.2.3 Morphology and physiology 22.214.171.124 Feeding 126.96.36.199 Digestion 188.8.131.52 Body fluids and excretion 184.108.40.206 Movement 220.127.116.11 Nervous system and sensory organs 2.2.4 Reproduction 18.104.22.168 Asexual and sexual reproduction 22.214.171.124 Reproductive rates 126.96.36.199 Sexual reproduction and resting egg formation 2.3. Culturing rotifers 2.3.1. Selection of species and/or strain 2.3.2 Maintaining water quality in culture tanks 188.8.131.52 Organic particles 184.108.40.206 Bacteria and other organisms in the culture tanks 2.3.3. Choosing the most appropriate culture techniques 220.127.116.11. Small-scale laboratory cultures 18.104.22.168. Mass cultures 2.4. Advanced warning on state of cultures 2.4.1 Egg ratio 2.4.2 Swimming velocity 2.4.3 Ingestion rate 2.4.4 Viscosity 2.4.5 Enzyme activity 2.4.6 Diseases 2.5. Nutritional quality of rotifers 2.5.1 Number of rotifers consumed by larvae 2.5.2 Dry weight and caloric value 2.5.3 Biochemical composition 22.214.171.124 Protein and carbohydrate contents 126.96.36.199 Lipid composition. 188.8.131.52 Vitamin enrichments 2.5.4 Effect of starvation 2.6. Preserved rotifers 2.6.1. Preservation at low temperatures 2.6.2 Cryopreservation 2.6.3 Resting eggs 2.7. Future directions 2. 8. References Biology, tank production and nutritional value of Artemia 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Biology of Artemia 3.2.1. Morphology and life cycle 3.2.2. Ecology and natural distribution 3.2.3. Taxonomy 3.2.4. Strain-specific characteristics 184.108.40.206 Size and energy content 220.127.116.11 Hatching quality 18.104.22.168 Diapause characteristics 22.214.171.124 Growth rate of nauplii 126.96.36.199 Temperature and salinity tolerance 188.8.131.52 Life history traits and reproductive capacity 184.108.40.206 Nutritional value 3.2.5. Cyst biology and diapause 220.127.116.11. Cyst morphology and physiology 18.104.22.168. Cyst metabolism and hatching 22.214.171.124. Diapause 3.3. Production methods 3.3.1. Tank production of Artemia biomass 126.96.36.199 Advantages of tank production and tank produced biomass 188.8.131.52. Physico-chemical conditions 184.108.40.206. Artemia strain selection and culture density 220.127.116.11. Feeding 18.104.22.168. Infrastructure 22.214.171.124. Culture techniques 126.96.36.199. Control of infections 188.8.131.52. Harvest and processing of cultured Artemia 184.108.40.206. Production figures of intensive Artemia cultures 3.4 Biochemical composition 3.4.1. Proximate composition 3.4.2. Lipids 3.4.3. Proteins 3.4.4. Vitamins 3.5. Applications of Artemia 3.5.1 The future use of Artemia in aquaculture 3.5.2. Hatching 3.5.3. Harvesting hatched nauplii 3.5.4. Decapsulation 3.5.5. Enrichment 3.5.6. Cold storage 3.5.7. Use of juvenile and adult Artemia 3.6. References Production, harvest and processing of Artemia from natural lakes 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Pond production of Artemia cysts and biomass 4.2.1. Permanent solar salt operations 4.2.2. Seasonal units 4.2.3. Site selection 4.2.4. Pond adaptation 4.2.5. Pond preparation 4.2.6. Artemia inoculation 4.2.7. Monitoring and managing the culture system 4.3. Artemia harvesting and processing technique 4.3.1. Harvesting techniques 4.3.2. Processing techniques 4.4. Artemia cyst harvesting and processing techniques 4.4.1 Harvesting techniques 4.4.2 Brine processing 4.4.3 Freshwater processing 4.4.4 Drying 4.4.5 Pre-packaging, packaging and storage 4.6 References 5. Production and nutritional value of copepods 5.1 General introduction 5.2 Biology 5.2.1. General characteristics 220.127.116.11 Calanoida 18.104.22.168 Harpacticoida 22.214.171.124 Cyclopoida 5.2.2 Copepod morphology and physiology 126.96.36.199. Digestive system 188.8.131.52. Circulatory system 184.108.40.206. Nervous system 220.127.116.11. Reproductive system 5.2.2. Reproduction 5.2.3. Resting or diapause eggs 5.2.4. Development, size and growth 18.104.22.168. Life cycle 22.214.171.124. Mortality 126.96.36.199. Size 188.8.131.52. Generation time 5.2.5. Feeding, food quality and food availability 184.108.40.206. Calanoids - feeding 220.127.116.11. Calanoids - ingestion rates 18.104.22.168. Calanoids - egg production 22.214.171.124. Harpacticoids - feeding 126.96.36.199. Harpacticoids - egg production 188.8.131.52. Calanoids - feeding 5.3. Production methods 5.3.1. Extensive and outdoor cultures 184.108.40.206. Harvest of wild zooplankton 220.127.116.11. Production in enclosed fjords or sea areas 18.104.22.168. Production in outdoor ponds or large tanks 5.3.2. Intensive culture of copepods 22.214.171.124. Calanoids 126.96.36.199. Harpacticoids 188.8.131.52. Cyclopoids 5.4. Biochemical composition 5.5. Nutritional value for fish larvae 5.6. Application in marine aquaculture 5.7. References. The microalgae of aquaculturegae of aquaculture 6.1 Introduction 6.2. Biology of microalgae 6.2.1. General characteristics of microalgae 6.2.2. Growth 6.2.3. Substrates of photoautotrophy 184.108.40.206. Light 220.127.116.11. Mineral nutrients 6.2.4. Substrates of heterotrophy 6.2.5. Other factors affecting growth 18.104.22.168. Temperature 22.214.171.124. Salinity 126.96.36.199. Metabolites 188.8.131.52. pH 184.108.40.206. Mixing 6.3. Biochemical composition of microalgae 6.3.1. Gross biochemical composition 6.3.2. Vitamins 6.3.3. Sterols 220.127.116.11. Bacillariophyceae 18.104.22.168. Prymnesiophycae 22.214.171.124. Prasinophyceae 126.96.36.199. Cryptophyceae 6.3.4. Fatty acids 188.8.131.52. Bacillariophyceae 184.108.40.206. Prymnesiophycae 220.127.116.11. Prasinophyceae 18.104.22.168. Chlorophyceae 22.214.171.124. Cryptophyceae 126.96.36.199. Eustigmatophyceae 6.4. Production methods for aquacultural microalgae 6.4.1. State of the art of microalgal production techniques in hatcheries 188.8.131.52. Asepsis and quality controls 184.108.40.206. Culture medium and temperature 220.127.116.11. Running the cultures 18.104.22.168. Efficiency 6.4.2. Methods of improvement 22.214.171.124. Continuous cultures 126.96.36.199. The increase in production yields 6.4.3. Heterotrophic production 6.4.4. Discussion 6.4.5. References Uses of microalgae in aquaculture 7.1 Introduction 7.2. Microalgae as food for molluscs 7.2.1. Microalgae as potential food source in mollusc hatcheries 188.8.131.52. Size 184.108.40.206. Digestibility 220.127.116.11. Nutritional value: biochemical composition of microalgae 18.104.22.168. Microalgae bulk production 7.2.2. Microalgal requirements in mollusc hatcheries 22.214.171.124. Feeding broodstock 126.96.36.199. Feeding larvae 188.8.131.52. Feeding spat 7.2.3. Microalgal substitutes for bivalve feeding 7.3. Microalgae as food for shrimp 7.3.1. Development of penaeid shrimp 7.3.2. Selection of algal species used for rearing shrimp larvae 7.3.3. Ingestion and filtration rates for shrimp larvae fed microalgae 7.3.4. Nutrient supply from algae in relation to larval shrimp requirements 184.108.40.206. Substitution of spray-dried algae or microparticulate compound diets for live algae 7.3.5. Other roles of algae in shrimp larval growth 7.3.6. Feeding microalgae to shrimp juveniles and adults 7.4. Microalgae as food for live prey 7.4.1. Feding live prey with live algae 7.4.2. Nutritional value of algae for live prey 220.127.116.11. Proteins and proximate composition 18.104.22.168. Fatty acids 22.214.171.124. Other lipid components 7.4.3. Vitamins 7.4.4. Minerals 7.4.5. Influence of algae on live feed and larval microbiology 7.4.6. Substitutes for live microalgae 7.5. Importance of microalgae in marine finfish larviculture 7.5.1. Range of microalgal action 7.5.2. Effects on endotrophic larval stages 7.5.3. Effects on the yolk-sac drinking stage 126.96.36.199. Drinking and ingestion of dissolved organics 188.8.131.52. Ingestion of microalgae 184.108.40.206. Digestion and assimilation of microalgae 7.5.4. Resistance to delay in first zooplanktonic feeding 7.5.5. Process and efficiency of first feeding 7.5.6. Effect on survival and growth efficiency at first feeding 7.5.7. Simulation of digestive functions and gut flora 7.5.8. Effects on early exotrophic larvae 7.5.9. Indirect effects of mircoalgae on larvae 7.5.10. Future developments 7.6. References
336 pages, 58 illus
Overall, this book is a good reference source and will be a useful addition to the shelves, not only for aquaculturists but also for applied phycologists. Journal of Applied Phycology "This book is recommended to everyone involved in the production or use of live feed in aquaculture." Aquaculture Research "A comprehensive publication on the culture and use of live feeds in marine aquaculture is quite timely....Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture not only provides an excellent summary of the use of traditional live food organisms, it also presents a considerable amount of information on organisms that have more recently come into prominence...The book provides an excellent review of the topic and contains a considerable amount of how-to information." World Aquaculture. "Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is a book perfectly targeted to fill an important gap in education and research in a specialism that has grown hugely over recent years... I would recommend this book most highly for anyone interested in marine aquaculture." Aquaculature News "Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is an essential purchase for anyone involved in marine aquaculture, including fish farmers, researchers and personnel in feed and equipment companies supplying the aquaculture trade. An extremely valuable tool as a reference and practical manual for students and professionals alike." International Aquafeed, November 2005