Please note (19/11/2012): a second edition is in preparation.
Lobsters: Biology, Management and Exploitation is an extremely comprehensive book covering the major commercially exploited species of lobsters worldwide. Divided into two major parts, Part I contains general chapters on growth, development and reproduction, behaviour, phylogeny and evolution, pathogens, parasites and commensals, nutrition, and larval, postlarval, juvenile and adult ecology. Part II contains chapters on each of the lobster genera of commercial importance, with the contents of each chapter including: species and distribution, life history and reproduction, predators and diseases, ecology and behaviour, population dynamics, harvesting, aquaculture and enhancement, and management and conservation.
Chapter 1 Growth & Development: Understanding and Modelling Growth Variability in Lobsters Rick Wahle & Mike Fogarty 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Development, growth patterns and the moult 1.2.1 Larvae & postlarvae 1.2.2 Juveniles & adults 1.2.3 Moult stages and endocrine control 1.3 Measuring growth 1.3.1 First moult in captivity 1.3.2 Tagging 1.3.3 Analysis of size-frequency distributions 1.3.4 Physiological age markers 1.3.5 Radionucleotide ratios to determine intermoult periods 1.3.6 Indicators of growth potential 1.4 Environmental influences on growth and maturity 1.4.1 Temperature Larvae and postlarvae Juveniles and adults 1.4.2 Light and photoperiod Larvae and postlarvae Juveniles and adults 1.4.3 Food Limitation Larvae and postlarvae Juveniles and adults 1.4.4 Density effects Larvae and postlarvae Juveniles and adults 1.4.5 Space and shelter 1.4.6 Behavioral and social conditions 1.5 Modelling growth 1.5.1 Continuous growth models Modelling growth in weight 1.5.2 Moult process models Moult-probability and intermoult duration Size increase per moult Mean growth 1.5.3 Scaling time Gnomonic Intervals Physiological time units 1.5.4 Modelling variability in growth Distributed delay models Simulation and matrix representations Degree-day models 1.6 Conclusions and future directions References Chapter 2 Reproduction Alison B. MacDiarmid & Bernard Sainte-Marie 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Reproductive morphology 2.3 Maturation 2.4 Timing and duration of female receptivity 2.5 Mate attraction, recognition, choice and competition 2.6 Copulation and sperm transfer and storage 2.7 Fertilisation and egg-laying 2.8 Egg brooding and hatching 2.9 Lobster mating systems and exploitation 2.10 Conclusions References Chapter 3 Behaviour Michael Childress & Steven Jury 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Sensory biology and regulation of behaviour 3.2.1 The Senses 3.2.2 Hormones and neuroendocrine control 3.2.3 Activity rhythms 3.2.4 Environment and behaviour 3.3 Habitat selection and social behaviour 3.3.1 Foraging and feeding 3.3.2 Sheltering and den sharing 3.3.3 Ontogenetic habitat shifts 3.4 Competition and agonistic behaviour 3.4.1 Antipredatory behaviours 3.4.2 Shelter competition 3.4.3 Aggression and dominance hierarchy formation 3.5 Movement and migration 3.5.1 Residency and homing 3.5.2 Nomadism 3.5.3 Migration 3.6 Mate choice and reproductive behaviour 3.6.1 Mate attraction and choice 3.6.2 Copulation and spawning 3.7 Behaviour and fisheries management 3.7.1 Behavioural basis of catchability 3.7.2 Movement and marine protected areas 3.8 Summary and future directions References Chapter 4 Phylogeny and Evolution Sheila Patek, Rodney M. Feldman, Megan Porter & Dale Tshudy 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Lobster Phylogeny 4.2.1 Lobster-decapod relationships (Nephropidae, Scyllaridae and Palinuridae) Morphological phylogenies of lobster-decapod relationships: fossil and extant taxa Molecular phylogenies of lobster-decapod relationships 4.2.2 Clawed lobster families:( Nephropidae, Thaumastochelidae, Erymidae, Chilenophoberidae, Chimaerastacidae, and Glypheidae) Morphological phylogenies of fossil and extant clawed lobsters Molecular phylogenies of clawed lobsters 4.2.3. Palinuridae and Synaxidae Morphological phylogenies of extant palinurid and synaxid lobsters Morphological phylogenies of fossil palinurid and synaxid lobsters Molecular phylogenies of palinurid and synaxid lobsters 4.2.4 Scyllaridae 4.3 Divergence Time Estimates 4.4 Evolutionary Biogeography 4.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 4.5.1 Strategies for future phylogenies Morphological challenges and strategies Molecular challenges and strategies 4.5.2 Conclusions References Chapter 5 Pathogens, Parasites And Other Symbionts Jeff Shields, Fran Stephens & Brian Jones 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Viral diseases 5.2.1. Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) 5.2.2. White spot syndrome virus 5.3 Bacteria 5.3.1. Gaffkaemia - Aerococcus viridans Biology Diagnostics Epidemiology Control and Treatment 5.3.2 Shell disease Biology Epidemiology 5.3.3. Vibriosis 5.3.4 Limp lobster disease 5.3.5 Fouling bacteria 5.4 Water moulds and fungi 5.4.1. Atkinsiella 5.4.2. Lagenidium 5.4.3. Haliphthoros 5.4.4. Fusarium 5.5 Protozoa 5.5.1. Ciliata - Anophryoides haemophila 5.5.2 Peritrich ciliates 5.5.3. Hematodinium sp. infections in Nephrops norvegicus 5.5.4 Microsporidia 5.5.5 Rhizopoda - Paramoeba sp. 5.5.6 Apicomplexa - Gregarines 5.6 Helminths 5.6.1. Digenetic trematode infections 5.6.2 Cestoda 5.6.3. Nemertea - Carcinomertes spp. and Pseudocarcinonemertes 5.6.4 Acanthocephala - Polymorphus botulis 5.6.5. Annelida - Histriobdella homari 5.6.7. Nematoda 5.6.8. Miscellaneous helminths 5.7 Miscellaneous metazoan symbionts 5.7.1 Nicothoidae - parasitic copepods 5.7.2 Amphipods 5.7.3 Fouling organisms 5.8 Diseases of noninfectious or unknown causes 5.8.1 Ammonia/nitrite toxicity 5.8.2 Air exposure 5.8.3 Turgid lobster syndrome 5.8.4 Shell blisters 5.8.5. Nutritional diseases - Moult death syndrome and deformities 5.8.6. Pink lobster syndrome 5.8.7. Calcinosis 5.8.8 Light damage to the retina of Nephrops norvegicus 5.9 Lobster defense mechanisms 5.9.1. Maintenance of exoskeleton integrity 5.9.2. Coagulation 5.9.3 Foreign agent recognition 5.9.4 Cellular responses 5.9.5 Repair of damage by toxins. 5.9.6 Organ-derived components 5.10 Conclusions References Chapter 6 Nutrition of Wild and Cultured Lobsters Mathew M. Nelson, Peter D. Nichols, Andrew G. Jeffs, Charles F. Phleger & Michael P. Bruce 6.1 From the wild 6.2 Proteins 6.2.1 Amino acids 6.2.2 Protein to energy ratio 6.3 Carbohydrates 6.3.1 Nutritive carbohydrates 6.3.2 Non-nutritive carbohydrates 6.3.3 Structural carbohydrates 6.3.4 Carbohydrate to lipid ratio 6.4 Lipids 6.4.1 Polar lipids 6.4.2 Sterols 6.5 Vitamins and minerals 6.6 Attractants 6.6.1 Low molecular weight compounds 6.6.2 Suppression and synergism 6.6.2 Food conditioning 6.7 Diet format 6.8 Feeding regimes 6.9 To the table 6.10 Conclusions and recommendations References Chapter 7 Larval and Postlarval Ecology Bruce Phillips, John D. Booth, J. Stanley Cobb, Andrew Jeffs & Paulette McWilliam 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Spiny lobsters and slipper lobsters 7.2.1 Phyllosoma larvae Larval identification and development Food, feeding and predators Duration of oceanic life Larval behaviour and ecology Spatial scale of recruitment mechanisms Interaction of ocean processes and larval behaviour 7.2.2 Puerulus and Nisto Metamorphosis to postlarva Movement to settlement sites 7.3 Clawed lobsters 7.3.1 Development 7.3.2 Behaviour 7.3.3 Factors affecting larval distribution 7.4 Conclusions References Chapter 8 Juvenile and Adult Ecology Mark J. Butler, Robert S. Steneck & William F. Herrnkind 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Spiny Lobsters 8.2.1 Limits to recruitment Postlarval availability and settlement Nursery habitats and demographic bottlenecks 8.2.2 Post-recruitment patterns and processes The ecological role of sociality Movement and Migration Competition Predation Pathogens Human and environmental effects 8.2.4 Effect of spiny lobsters on benthic community structure 8.2.5 Spiny lobsters and marine protected areas 8.3 Clawed lobsters 8.3.1 Limits to recruitment Postlarval availability and settlement Nursery habitats and demographic bottlenecks Bottleneck variability 8.3.2 Post-recruitment patterns and processes Distribution, abundance and body size Competition and Predation 8.3.3 Ghosts of predators past: a top-down to bottom-up transition References Chapter 9 Homarus species J. Stanley Cobb & Kathy Castro 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Overview of the species 9.3 Life-history characteristics 9.3.1 Life cycle 9.3.2 Growth 9.3.3 Age 9.3.4 Maturation 9.3.5 Clutch size and fecundity 9.4 Larval dynamics 9.5 Population dynamics 9.6 Sources of mortality 9.6.1 Ecological role of predation 9.6.2 Disease 9.7 Harvest of wild populations 9.7.1 Gear type and methods 9.7.2 Landings and effort 9.8 Mariculture and population enhancement. 9.8.1 Mariculture 9.8.2 Stock enhancement 9.8.3 Habitat Enhancement 9.9 Management and conservation 9.10 Conclusions References Chapter 10 Jasus species John D. Booth 10.1 Species and distribution 10.2 Reproduction, life history and growth 10.3 Ecology and behaviour 10.4 Predators and diseases 10.5 Population dynamics 10.6 Harvests of wild populations and their regulation 10.6.1 South Africa and Namibia 10.6.2 Australia 10.6.3 New Zealand 10.6.4 Other Jasus fisheries 10.7 Aquaculture and enhancement 10.8 Management and conservation 10.9 Conclusions References Chapter 11 Panulirus Species Bruce F. Phillips & Roy Melville-Smith 11.1 Species and distribution 11.2 Life history, growth & reproduction 11.3 Predators & diseases 11.4 Ecology and behaviour 11.5 Population dynamics and regulation 11.6 Harvest of wild populations and their regulations 11.6.1 Australia and Papua New Guinea Panulirus cygnus Panulirus ornatus 11.6.2 Cuba Panulirus argus 11.6.3 USA (Florida) Panulirus argus 11.6.4 Brazil Panulirus argus and Panulirus laevicauda 11.6.5 Baja Mexico and USA (California) Panulirus interruptus 11.6.6 India Panulirus polyphagus 11.6.7 Kenya and Somalia Panulirus homarus megasculptus (mostly) 11.7 Aquaculture and enhancement 11.7.1 Aquaculture Larval culture Growout of pueruli and juveniles On-growing of legal-size lobsters 11.7.2 Enhancement 11.8 Management and conservation 11.9 Conclusions References Chapter 12 Palinurus species Johan Groeneveld, Raquel Goni & Daniel Latrouite 12.1 Species and distribution 12.1.1 The south-east African species 12.1.2 The North Atlantic and Mediterranean species 12.2 Biology, ecology and life history 12.2.1 Mating and fertilization 12.2.2 Breeding period 12.2.3 Fecundity 12.2.4 Larval distribution and recruitment of pueruli 12.2.5 Size at sexual maturity 12.2.6 Moulting and growth 12.2.7 Population structure, size composition and sex ratios 12.2.8 Migrations 12.2.9 Predators and natural mortality 12.2.10 Diet 12.2.11 Evolutionary phylogeny and genetic population structure 12.3 Harvest of wild populations 12.3.1 Palinurus gilchristi 12.3.2 Palinurus delagoae 12.3.3 Palinurus elephas 12.3.4 Palinurus mauritanicus 12.3.5 Palinurus charlestoni 12.3.6 Bycatch and ecological impacts of fisheries 12.4 Management controls and regulations 12.5 Assessments and current status of the stock and fisheries 12.6 Culture, enhancement and marine reserves 12.7 Conclusions 12.7.1 Biology 12.7.2 Fisheries References Chapter 13 Nephrops species Mike Bell, Frank Redant & Ian Tuck 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The species 13.2.1 Species description 13.2.2 Geographical distribution 13.2.3 Habitat requirements 13.2.4 Similar species 13.3 Life history and population dynamics 13.3.1 Moulting and growth Moulting pattern Growth curves Variations in growth rate Methodological problems to establish growth 13.3.2 Reproduction Size at maturity Reproduction cycle Potential and effective fecundity Larval development and confinement 13.3.3 Burrowing and emergence behaviour Structure and densities of Nephrops burrows Diurnal activity patterns Seasonal activity patterns Effects of hypoxia 13.3.4 Food and feeding 13.3.5 Predators 13.3.6 Parasites and diseases Shell and muscle necrosis Larger parasites Dinoflagellate infections 13.3.7 Population regulation Stock-recruitment relationships Natural mortality 13.4 Harvest of wild populations 13.4.1 Fishing methods Nephrops trawl fishery Baited traps 13.4.2 Patterns of catchability 13.4.3 Economic importance 13.4.4 Species caught alongside Nephrops 13.4.5 Impacts of fishing Effects of fishing on seabed and benthic communities Nephrops discarding 13.5 Monitoring and management 13.5.1 Data collection programmes 13.5.2 Assessment methods Trends in fishery statistics Trawl surveys Annual larval production method Underwater television surveys Analytical assessment methods 13.5.3 Management measures and management structures 13.5.4 Status of stocks References Chapter 14 Scyllarides Species Ehud Spanier & Kari Lavalli 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Taxonomy and systematic hierarchy 14. 2.1 Features of the genus 14.2.2 Species & distribution 14.3 Anatomy 14.4 Life history 14.4.1 Phyllosomas 14.4.2 Nistos 14.4.3 Juveniles 14.4.4 Adults 14.5 Behaviour 14.5.1 Feeding Behaviour 14.5.2 Sheltering behaviour and substrate preferences 14.5.3 Predators and antipredator behaviour 14.5.4 Mating behaviour 14.5.5 Movement patterns Daily and seasonal horizontal patterns Swimming behaviour (vertical movements) 14.6 Diseases 14.7. Harvest of wild populations 14.7.1 Scyllarides nodifer fishery 14.7.2 Scyllarides latus fishery 14.7.3 Scyllarides obtusus fishery 14.7.4 Fishery Concerns 14.8. Aquaculture & restocking 14.9 Summary References Chapter 15 Conclusions Bruce Phillips References
Bruce Phillips is based at the Department of Environmental Biology and Aquatic Sciences Research Unit, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia and is highly regarded for his work in the area of fisheries and aquaculture with a focus on invertebrates.