In the face of so many unprecedented changes in our environment, the pressure is on scientists to lead the way toward a more sustainable future. Written by a team of ecologists, this book provides a framework that natural resource managers and researchers can use to design monitoring programs that will benefit future generations by distilling the information needed to make informed decisions. In addition, this text is valuable for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses that are focused on monitoring animal populations.
With the aid of more than 90 illustrations and a four-page color insert, this book offers practical guidance for the entire monitoring process, from incorporating stakeholder input and data collection, to data management, analysis, and reporting. It establishes the basis for why, what, how, where, and when monitoring should be conducted; describes how to analyze and interpret the data; explains how to budget for monitoring efforts; and discusses how to assemble reports of use in decision-making. The book takes a multi-scaled and multi-taxa approach, focusing on monitoring vertebrate populations and upland habitats, but the recommendations and suggestions presented are applicable to a variety of monitoring programs.
Lastly, the book explores the future of monitoring techniques, enabling researchers to better plan for the future of wildlife populations and their habitats. It furthers the goal of achieving a world in which biodiversity is allowed to evolve and flourish in the face of such uncertainties as climate change, invasive species proliferation, land use expansion, and population growth.
Introduction Monitoring Resources of High Value Monitoring as a Part of Resource Planning Monitoring in Response to a Crisis Monitoring in Response to Legal Challenges Adaptive Management An Example of Monitoring and Use of Adaptive Management Summary References Lessons Learned from Current Monitoring Programs Federal Monitoring Programs Nongovernmental Organizations and Initiatives Learning from Citizen-Based Monitoring Summary References Community-Based Monitoring A Conflict Over Benefits Designing and Implementing a Community-Based Monitoring Program Suggestions for Scientists Summary References Goals and Objectives Now and Into the Future Targeted Versus Surveillance Monitoring Incorporating Stakeholder Objectives Identifying Information Needs The Anatomy of an Effective Monitoring Objective Articulating the Scales of Population Monitoring Data Collected to Meet the Objectives Which Species Should be Monitored? Intended Users of Monitoring Plans Summary References Designing a Monitoring Plan Articulating Questions to be Answered Inventory, Monitoring, and Research Are Data Already Available? Types of Monitoring Designs Beginning the Monitoring Plan SummaryReferences Factors to Consider When Designing the Monitoring Plan Use of Existing Data to Inform Sampling Design Cost Stratification of Samples Adaptive Sampling Peer Review Summary References Putting Monitoring to Work on the Ground Creating a Standardized Sampling Scheme Selection of Sample Sites Logistics Biological Study Ethics Voucher Specimens Schedule and Coordination Plan Qualifications for Personnel Sampling Unit Marking and Monuments Documenting Field Monitoring Plans Critical Areas for Standardization Budgets Summary References Field Techniques for Population Sampling and Estimation Data Requirements Spatial Extent Frequently Used Techniques for Sampling Animals Life History and Population Characteristics Effects of Terrain and Vegetation Merits and Limitations of Indices Compared to Estimators Estimating Community Structure Standardization and Protocol Review Budget Constraints Summary References Techniques for Sampling Habitat Selecting an Appropriate Scale Remotely Sensed Data Consistent Documentation of Sample Sites Ground Measurements of Habitat Elements Methods for Ground-Based Sampling of Habitat Elements Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Availability Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Suitability Assessing the Distribution of Habitat Across the Landscape Linking Inventory Data to Satellite Imagery and GIS Measuring Landscape Structure and Change Summary References Database Management The Basics of Database Management The General Structure of a Monitoring Database Digital Databases Data Forms Data Storage Metadata Consider a Database Manager An Example of a Database Management System: FAUNA Summary References Data Analysis in Monitoring Data Visualization I: Getting to Know Your Data Data Visualization II: Getting to Know Your Model Possible Remedies if Parametric Assumptions Are Violated Statistical Distribution of the Data Abundance and Counts Analysis of Species Occurrences and Distribution Analysis of Trend Data Analysis of Cause-and-Effect Monitoring Data Paradigms of Inference: Saying Something with Your Data and Models Retrospective Power Analysis Summary References Reporting Format of a Monitoring Report Summary References Uses of the Data: Synthesis, Risk Assessment, and Decision Making Thresholds and Trigger Points Forecasting Trends Predicting Patterns Over Space and Time Synthesis of Monitoring Data Risk Analysis Decision Making Summary References Changing the Monitoring Approach General Precautions to Changing Methodology When to Make a Change Summary References The Future of Monitoring Emerging Technologies A New Conceptual Framework for Monitoring Summary References Appendix Scientific Names of Species Mentioned in the Text Index
Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Oregon Wildlife Institute, Corvallis, Oregon, USA Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA