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About this book
About this book
It is difficult to think of a more significant example of international co-operation to address a problem that threatened the health and wellbeing of the entire planet than the 1987 Montreal Protocol for the Elimination of Ozone-Depleting Substances. This breakthrough in international environmental governance has proved to be an extraordinary success beyond rhetoric or promises. In a dozen years, this international agreement went from an understanding of the need to act in a precautionary manner for mutual benefit to a successful worldwide effort to eliminate chemical substances harmful to our protective ozone layer. The production and consumption of most ozone-depleting substances has now been phased out in developed countries, with developing countries not far behind. What happened and why is of tremendous importance for those looking for guidance in the future, particularly those now involved in hugely complicated negotiations on climate change. The success of the Montreal Protocol has been linked to many factors such as political will, treaty flexibility and the recognition of equity issues raised by developing countries. While comprehensively analysing all of these success factors, "Ozone Connections" goes on to suggest that a social organisation of global governance as typified by the protocol's Technical and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) was a unique - but replicable - decisive factor. This book argues that we need to understand how the implementation of complex global environmental agreements depends on the construction and exploitation of social connections among experts who act collectively to define solutions to environmental problems. An original and provoking thesis, it synthesizes some of the more exciting social science concepts and methods, while refining our basic understanding of environmental social change and providing policy-makers with concrete success factors to replicate. The book should be of interest to academics in the fields of sociology, political science, international relations, network studies, human communication, motivation, collaboration and leadership, as well as the burgeoning interdisciplinary field of environmental studies. Businesses will also find many applications for practical use. Finally, the many directly transferable lessons from ozone layer protection make this book a key addition to the growing literature on climate change.
1 Introduction 1.1 The 'early days' of ozone layer protection: Jay Baker's story 1.2 Collaborative Leadership 1.3 The Technology and Economic Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol 1.4 A study of global environmental policy-making 1.5 Perspectives on studying global environmental policies on regulation and governance 1.6 The organisation of this book 2 The Montreal Protocol: a remarkable treaty 2.1 Historical progression of international co-operation on the ozone layer 2.2 Implementation mechanisms for developing countries 2.3 Creating the conditions for expert assessment 2.4 The TEAP becomes knowledge bank and resource personnel 2.5 Composition of the TEAP 2.6 Independence of the assessment panels 2.7 The Ozone Network of Experts on Technology 3 Biography and governance: social capital in action 3.1 Social capital and the governing of the TEAP (strategic information alliances) 3.2 Who are the actors? 3.3 Experts endowed with capital: The Jose Pons Pons story 3.4 Developing more capital 3.5 TEAP dropouts 4. Creating community through committee work 4.1 The work of the TEAP: writing is everything 4.2 Disciplining the network through social connection 4.3 The measures of social connection 4.4 Patterns of influence and connection 4.5 Committee structures (graphs) 4.6 Thickness of committee ties 4.7 Becoming a community 4.8 Conclusion 5 Building the network and its capital 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Collaborative leadership and the contribution of Stephen O. Andersen 5.3 Challenging the status quo 5.4 Enrolling others 5.5 Inspiring commitment 5.6 Suspending cynicism 5.7 Embracing industry expertise 5.8 Building social competence and communication skills 5.9 Constructing camaraderie 5.10 Creating focus 5.11 Forging trust 5.12 Attending to the 'home front' 5.13 Rewarding success through public recognition 5.14 Heart 5.15 Conclusion 6 Lessons learned 6.1 MP lessons Looking toward climate change
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In an era of globalisation-where issues of distinct social, human and cultural capital seem to be blurred, where real participation and honest camaraderie seem to be dwindling-here come the two authors to chart a path based on the significance of all these factors, reminding us to keep watching that they do not slip out of our hands . . . a marvellous job.' Mostafa K. Tolba, President, International Centre of Environment and Development (ICED), Former Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 'The success of the efforts to phase out use of the ozone-depleting substances in thousands of industries owes significantly to the dedicated network of more than 500 experts, from around the world, of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) of the Montreal Protocol. Penelope Canan and Nancy Reichman present a penetrating analysis of how this network has been built up and sustained. The analysis has valuable lessons to offer to any organisation venturing to solve global problems.' K.M. Sarma, Former Executive Director of the Montreal Protocol Secretariat. ' In the final analysis, the implementation of environmental treaties depends on the effort, motivation and commitment of the people involved. Canan and Reichman offer a fascinating and innovative analysis of the evolution of one particular community and its impact on the operation of the Montreal Protocol. Anyone interested in the human side of environmental agreements should read this book.' Duncan Brack, Head, Energy and Environment Programme, The Royal Institute of International Affairs. 'Considering the many excellent accounts given of the successful ozone story, I did not think it possible to add much new insight. This book clearly shows I was wrong. It is a fascinating and mostly untold story of the real-world possibilities and constraints facing key people in the making and implementation of ozone policy.' Steinar Andresen, Professor of Political Science, University of Oslo and senior researcher at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute.