About this book
Pastoral systems are some of the most fragile human ecosystems that exist and are under threat from the expansion of cultivation, changes in social patterns and climate change. These ecosystems are of major importance since they contain a rich biological and cultural diversity.
The aim of the book is to take a holistic view of pastoral systems by bringing together papers written by specialists in plant and animal ecology with an interest in the application of their research with papers taking an economic and social perspective. The focus is on marginal environments where the issues are in greatest relief with the papers tackling key issues in semi-arid and disadvantaged temperate areas. The key issues relate to identifying the biological constraints of these pastoral systems, understanding soil/plant/animal relationships, exploring biodiversity, landscape and social issues in multi-functional systems and providing solutions to constraints through a number of case studies. By comparing and contrasting these two environments, the book will be taking a completely new approach to understanding how pastoral systems function and how they will evolve in the future.
The book is of value to all those with an interest in pastoral systems by providing an up-to-date account of current understanding of these multi-functional systems and new insights into how they function and how they will develop in the future.
Foreword 7; Keynote presentations 15; Constraints to pastoral systems in marginal environments 17; A.J. Ash and J.G. McIvor; Soil/plant interactions 29; P. Millard and B.K. Singh; How herbivores optimise diet quality and intake in heterogeneous pastures, and the consequences for vegetation dynamics 39; R. Baumont, C. Ginane, F. Garcia and P. Carrere; Land use history and the build-up and decline of species richness in Scandinavian semi-natural grasslands 51; O. Eriksson, S.A.O. Cousins and R. Lindborg; Recreating pastoralist futures 61; T.J.P. Lynam; Challenges and opportunities for sustainable rangeland pastoral systems in the Edwards Plateau of Texas 71; J.W. Walker, J.L. Johnson and C.A. Taylor, Jr; Working within constraints: managing African savannas for animal production and biodiversity 81; J.T. du Toit; Range-based livestock production in Turkmenistan 91; R.H. Behnke and G. Davidson; Section 1: Biological constraints on pastoral systems in marginal environments 103; A new perennial legume to combat dryland salinity in south-western Australia 105; L.W. Bell, M.A. Ewing, M. Ryan, S.J. Bennett and G.A. Moore; Diversity and variation in nutritive value of plants growing on 2 saline sites in south-western Australia 106; H.C. Norman, R.A. Dynes and D.G. Masters; The long road to developing native herbaceous summer forage legume ecotypes 107; J.P. Muir, T.J. Butler and W.R. Ocumpaugh; Mortality model for a perennial grass in Australian semi-arid wooded grasslands grazed by sheep 108; K.C. Hodgkinson and W.J. Muller; Selecting grassland species for saline environments 109; M.E. Rogers, A.D. Craig, T.D. Colmer, R. Munns, S.J. Hughes, P.M. Evans, P.G.H. Nichols, R. Snowball, D. Henry, J. Deretic, B. Dear and M. Ewing.; Grazing animal production systems and grazing land characteristics in a semi-arid region of Greece 110; I. Hadjigeorgiou, G. Economou, D. Lolis, N. Moustakas and G. Zervas; The productivity of coastal meadows in Finland 111; R. Nevalainen, A. Huuskonen, S. Jaakola, J. Kiljala and E. Joki-Tokola; Ear emergence of different grass species under Finnish growing conditions 112; M. Niskanen, O. Niemelainen and L. Jauhiainen; Effects of sowing date and phosphorus fertiliser application on winter survival of lucerne cv. Aohan in the northern semi-arid region of China 113; Z.L. Wang, Q.Zh. Sun, Y.W. Wang, Zh.Y. Li and Sh.F. Zhao; Reasons for the premature decline in Astragalus adsurgens stands in Kerqin sandy land 114; Q.Zh. Sun, Z.L. Wang, J.G. Han, Y.W. Wang and G.R. Liu; The influence of fertiliser application to strip-sown grasslands on herbage production and quality 115; A. Kohoutek, P. Komarek, V. Odstrcilova and P. Nerusil; The effect of harvest management on forage production and self-reseeding potential of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) 116; P.W. Bartholomew and R.D. Williams; An evaluation of grazing value of maize and companion crops for wintering lactating ewes 117; E.A. van Zyl and C.S. Dannhauser. Yield and mineral concentration changes in maize and Italian ryegrass cropping systems 118; S. Idota and Y. Ishii; Constraints on dairy cattle production from locally available forages in Bangladesh 119; M.A.S. Khan; Pasture management in deer farms in Mauritius 120; P. Grimaud, P. Thomas and J. Sauzier; Section 2: Research advances in understanding soil/plant/animal relationships 121; Heterogeneous nutrient distribution across dairy grazing systems in southeastern Australia 123; C.J.P. Gourley, I. Awty, P. Durling, J. Collins, A. Melland and S.R. Aarons; Fertiliser responses and soil test calibrations for grazed pastures in Australia 124; C.J.P. Gourley, A.R. Melland, K.I. Peverill, P. Strickland, I. Awty and J.M. Scott; Modelling basal area of perennial grasses in Australian semi-arid wooded grasslands 125; S.G. Marsden and K.C. Hodgkinson; Diversity of diet composition decreases with conjoint grazing of cattle with sheep and goats 126; A.M. Nicol, M.B. Soper and A. Stewart; Spatial scale of heterogeneity affects diet choice but not intake in beef cattle 127; S.M. Rutter, J.E. Cook, K.L. Young and R.A. Champion; A simple vegetation criterion (NDF content) may account for diet choices of cattle between forages varying in maturity stage and physical accessibility 128; C. Ginane and R. Baumont; Do species and functional diversity indices reflect changes in grazing regimes and climatic conditions in northeastern Spain? 129; F. de Bello, J. Leps and M.T. Sebastia; Species richness affects grassland yield and yield stability across seasons, sites and years 130; D.J. Barker, R.M. Sulc, M.R. Burgess and T.L. Bultemeier; The biodiversity value of 'improved' and 'unimproved' saline agricultural land and adjacent remnant vegetation in South Australia 131; M.L. Hebart, N.J. Edwards, E.A. Abraham and A.D. Craig; Grazing impacts on rangeland condition in semi-arid south-western Africa 132; A. Rothauge, G.N. Smit and A.L. Abate; Soil, plant and livestock interactions in Australian tropical savannas 133; L.P. Hunt and T.Z. Dawes-Gromadzki; The effect of different grazing managements on upland grassland 134; Pavlu, M. Hejcman, L. Pavlu and J. Gaisler; The effect of fertiliser treatment on the development of rangelands in Argentina 135; E.F. Latorre and M.B. Sacido; Effect of pre-planting seed treatment options on dormancy breaking and germination of Ziziphus mucronata 136; A. Hassen, N.F.G. Rethman and W.A. van Niekerk; A genecological study of the widespread Australian native grass Austrodanthonia caespitosa (Gaudich.) H.P. Linder. 137; C.M. Waters, J. Virgona and G.J. Melville; An agronomic evaluation of grazing maize combined with companion crops for sheep in northwestern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 138; C.S. Dannhauser and E.A. van Zyl; Growth, nitrogen and phosphorus economy in two Lotus glaber Mill. cytotypes grown under contrasting P-availability 139; D.H. Cogliatti, L.A. Lett, M.S. Barufaldi, P. Segura and J.A. Cardozo; Belowground meristem populations as regulators of grassland dynamics 140; H.J. Dalgleish and D.C. Hartnett; The impact of vegetation structure and spatial heterogeneity on invertebrate biodiversity within upland landscapes 141; L. Cole, M.L. Pollock, D. Robertson, J.P. Holland and D.I. McCraken; The potential for summer-dormant perennial grasses in Mediterranean and semi-arid pastures 142; F. Lelievre, F. Volaire, P. Chapon and M. Norton. Improvement of native perennial forage plants for sustainability of Mediterranean farming systems 143; F. Lelievre and F. Volaire; The influence of management on health status of Festuca rubra in mountain meadows 144; B. Vozenilkova, F. Klimes, J. Kvet, Z. Maskova, B. Cermak and K. Suchy; Nutritive value of Alopecurus pratensis, Festuca rubra, Arrhenatherum elatius and Lolium perenne grown in the South of Belgium 145; A. Nivyobizi, A.G. Deswysen, D. Dehareng, A. Peeters and Y. Larondelle; Increasing the productive potential of permanent grasslands from the forest steppe area of Romania 146; V. Vintu, C. Samuil, T. Iacob and St. Postolache; The influence of harvest period and fertilisation on the yield of some mixed grass and leguminous species under the forest steppe conditions of North-east Romania 147; V. Vintu, C. Samuil, T. Iacob and St. Postolache; Productivity of Sahiwal and Friesian - Sahiwal crossbreds in marginal grasslands of Kenya 148; W.B. Muhuyi, F.B. Lukibisi and S.N. ole Sinkeet; Rainfall and grazing impacts on the population dynamics of Bothriochloa ewartiana in tropical Australia 149; D.M. Orr and P.J. O'Reagain; Herbage quality of dwarf Napier grass under a rotational cattle grazing system two years after establishment 150; Y. Ishii, A.A. Sunusi, M. Mukhtar, S. Idota and K. Fukuyama; Grazing suitability of various Napier grass varieties in paddocks of different ages 151; Y. Ishii, M. Mukhtar, S. Tudsri, S. Idota, Y. Nakamura and K. Fukuyama; Detecting fauna habitat in semi-arid grasslands using satellite imagery 152; N.A. Bruce, I.D. Lunt, M. Abuzar and M. Mitchell; The effect of manipulated conservation margins in intensively grazed dairy paddocks on the biodiversity of Pteromalidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Parasitica) 153; A. Anderson, G. Purvis, A. Helden and H. Sheridan; Effect on sward botanical composition of mixed and sequential grazing by cattle and sheep of upland permanent pasture in the UK 154; J.E. Vale, M.D. Fraser and J.G. Evans; Effect of mixed and sequential grazing by cattle and sheep of upland permanent pasture on liveweight gain 155; M.D. Fraser, J.E. Vale and J.G. Evans; Effects of breed and stage of growing season on the metabolic profile of sheep grazing moorland 156; V.J. Theobald, M.D. Fraser and J.M. Moorby; Characterising the fermentation capabilities of gut microbial populations from different breeds of cattle and sheep grazing heathland 157; D.R. Davies, M.D. Fraser, V.J. Theobald and E.L. Bakewell; The performance of cattle on lowland species-rich neutral grassland at three contrasting grazing pressures 158; B.A. Griffith and J.R.B. Tallowin; Nutritional value of pasture forage for sheep in Krkonose National Park 159; P. Homolka; Vegetation dynamics of campos under grazing/fire regimes in southern Brazil 160; F.L.F. De Quadros, J.P.P. Trindade, D.G. Bandinelli and L. Potter; Modelling grazing animal distributional patterns using multi-criteria decision analysis techniques 161; M.R. George, N.R. Harris, N.K. McDougald, M. Louhaichi, M.D. Johnson, D.E. Johnson and K.R. Smith; Species richness, species identity and ecosystem function in managed temperate grasslands 162; S.C. Goslee, M.A. Sanderson and K. Soder; Preference of goats for cool-season annual clovers in the southern United States 163; T.H. Terrill, W.F. Whitehead, G. Durham, C.S. Hoveland, B.P. Singh and S. Gelaye; Production per animal and use of intake estimatives to predicted animal productivity in Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott and Cynodon spp cv. Tifton 85 pastures 164; F.L.F. de Quadros, A.R. Maixner, G.V. Kozloski, D.P. Montardo, A. Noronha, D.G. Bandinelli, M. da S. Brum and N.D. Aurelio; Ingestive behaviour of steers in native pastures in southern Brazil 165; C.E. Pinto, P.C.F. Carvalho, A. Frizzo, J.A.S.F. Junior, T.M.S. Freitas and C. Nabinger. Challenges in modelling live-weight change in grazed pastures in the Australian sub-tropics 166; C.K. McDonald and A.J. Ash; Effect of urea-treated Pennisetum pedicellatum and supplementation of concentrates with urea on milk production of "Mossi" ewes 167; V.M.C. Bougouma-Yameogo and A.J. Nianogo; Accumulation of polyphenols and major bioactive compounds in Plantago lanceolata L. as a medicinal plant for animal health and production 168; Y. Tamura and K. Yamaki; Effect of stocking rate on a Stipa breviflora Desert Steppe community of Inner Mongolia 169; G. Han, W.D. Willms, M. Zhao, A. Gao, S. Jiao and D. Kemp; Using the n-alkane technique to estimate the herbage intake and diet composition of cattle grazing a Miscanthus sinensis grassland 170; Y. Zhang, Y. Togamura and K. Otsuki; Section 3: Multifunctional pastoral systems: biodiversity, landscape and social issues 171; An ecosystem modelling approach to rehabilitating semi-desert rangelands of North Horr, Kenya 173; G.A. Olukoye, W.N. Wamicha and J.I. Kinyamario; Riparian management in intensive grazing systems for improved biodiversity and environmental quality: productive grazing, healthy rivers 174; S.R. Aarons, M. Jones-Lennon, P. Papas, N. Ainsworth, F. Ede and J. Davies; Contributions of the United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service to conserving grasslands on private lands in the United States 175; L.P. Heard; Protection of agrobiodiversity: model calculations in Rhineland-Palatia: costs and implications for farmers 176; H. Bergmann; Stocking rate theory and profit drivers in north Australian rangeland grazing enterprises 177; N.D. MacLeod, A.J. Ash and J.G. McIvor; An ecological and economic risk avoidance drought management decision support system 178; R.K. Heitschmidt and L.T. Vermeire; Predicting the effects of management on upland birds, economy and employment 179; S.M. Gardner, G.M. Buchanan, J.W. Pearce-Higgins, M.C. Grant and A. Waterhouse; Managing resources by grazing in grasslands dominated by dominant shrub species 180; D. Magda, C. Agreil, M. Meuret, E. Chambon-Dubreuil and P.-L. Osty; A decision support system for rangeland management in degrading environments 181; R.G. Bennett and F.J. Mitchell; Modelling the encroachment of farmhouse culture on private village pastures and its environmental fallout in Northern Western Ghats, India 182; S.B. Nalavade, K.R. Sahasrabuddhe and A.A. Patwardhan; Rangeland as a common property resource: contrasting insights from communal areas of central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 183; J.E. Bennett and H.R. Barrett; Andean pastures in the fourth region of Chile: marginal lands and vital spaces for a transhumance system 184; T.S. Kone, R. Osorio and J.-M. Fotsing; Australian pasture systems: the perennial compromise 185; L.W. Bell and M.A. Ewing; The effect of alternative soil amendments on the botanical composition, basal cover, dry matter production and chemical properties of re-vegetated mine land 186; W.F. Truter and N.F.G. Rethman; Optimization of the pasture resource in boundary environments as a basis for regional nature management 187; M.V. Rogova; Grazing, biodiversity and pastoral vegetation in the South Sudanien area of Burkina Faso 188; E. Botoni-Liehoun and P. Daget; Effects of landscape structure on plants species richness in small grassland remnants in two different landscapes 189; S.A.O. Cousins and O. Eriksson. Is biodiversity declining in the traditional haymeadows of Skye and Lochalsh, Scotland? 190; G.E.D. Tiley and D.G.L. Jones; Forage Development in the Nepal mid-hills: new perspectives 191; A.D. Robertson; Forage Arachis in Nepal: a simple success 192; A.D. Robertson; Grazing prohibition programme and sustainable development of grassland in China 193; X.Y. Hou and L. Yang; Hedgerow systems and livestock in Philippine grasslands: GHG emissions 194; D.B. Magcale-Macandog, E. Abucay, R.G. Visco, R.N. Miole, E.L. Abas, G.M. Comajig and A.D. Calub; Agroforestry systems in Cuba: some aspects of animal production 195; J.M. Iglesias, L. Simon, L. Lamela, I. Hernandez, M. Milera and T. Sanchez; Optimising forage production on degraded lands in the dry tropics through silvopastoral systems 196; P.S. Pathak; How to simplify tools for natural grassland characterisation based on biological measures without losing too much information? 197; P. Ansquer, P. Cruz, J.P. Theau, E. Lecloux and M. Duru; Cow-calf production on perennial pastures in the central semi-arid region of Argentina 198; C.A. Frasinelli, K. Frigerio, J. Martinez Ferrer and J.H. Veneciano; Growth performance of crossbred steers on unfertilised mountain pastures at low stocking rates 199; A. Chassot and J. Troxler; The milk yield by Cinisara cows in different management systems: 1. Effect of season of calving 200; C. Giosue, M. Alabiso, M.L. Alicata and G. Parrino; The milk yield by Cinisara cows in different management systems: 2. Effect of season of production 201; M. Alabiso, C. Giosue, M.L. Alicata and G. Parrino; Eating biodiversity: investigating the links between grassland biodiversity and quality food production 202; A. Hopkins, H. Buller, C. Morris and J.D. Wood; GLM+ delivers improved natural resource management and production outcomes to extensive grazing properties in the savannas of semi-arid north Queensland, Australia 203; J. Rolfe and K. Shaw; Profitable and sustainable grazing systems for livestock producers with saline land in southern Australia 204; N.J. Edwards, D. Masters, E. Barrett-Lennard, M. Hebart, M. McCaskill, W. King and W. Mason; Alternative land use options for Philippine grasslands: a bioeconomic modeling approach using the WaNuLCAS model 205; D.B. Magcale-Macandog, E. Abucay and P.A.B. Ani; Sustainable semi-arid grazing management based on indigenous Shona practices prior to introduction of western ideas in Zimbabwe 206; O. Mugweni and R. Mugweni; Herders and wetland degradation in northern Cameroon 207; E.T. Pamo, F. Tendonkeng and J.R. Kana; Inner Mongolian herders move toward sustainability and elevate their incomes from Cashmere goat production by reducing grazing pressure on fragile grasslands 208; B.P. Fritz and M. Zhao; Keyword index 209; Author index 213.