Volume 2 addresses stereoscopic vision in cats and primates, including humans. It starts with an account of the physiology of stereoscopic mechanisms. It then deals with binocular rivalry, binocular summation, binocular masking, and the interocular transfer of visual effects, such as the motion aftereffect and visual learning. Visual inputs from corresponding regions in the two eyes project to binocular cells in the visual cortex and fuse to create an impression of one image. The geometry of the region in space that creates fused images (the horopter) is discussed in some detail. Objects outside the horopter produce images with binocular disparity. Stereoscopic vision depends on the detection of these disparities after the two images have brought into correct register in the visual cortex.
A review of mechanisms that bring the images into binocular register is followed by a review of stimulus tokens that are used to detect binocular disparities. A visual effect that is visible only after inputs from the two eyes have by combined is a cyclopean effect. Cyclopean effects, such as cyclopean geometrical illusions, cyclopean motion, texture segregation, and binocular direction are reviewed. a geometry of binocular vision and of mechanisms that allow us to perceive depth from binocular disparity. Stereoacuity is the smallest depth interval that can be detected. The factors that influence stereoacuity are discussed. The many types of binocular disparity, such as point disparity, orientation disparity, and spatial gradients of disparity are described. The role of each type of disparity in stereopsis is reviewed. Stimuli in distinct depth planes produce contrast effects and many visual effects, such as figure perception, motion perception, and whiteness perception, are affected by the relative distances of stimuli. These topics are reviewed. The spatiotemporal aspects of stereoscopic vision, including the Pulfrich stereomotion effect are reviewed.
The volume ends with a review of techniques used to create stereoscopic displays and of the applications of stereoscopy.
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Ian P. Howard is Professor at the Centre for Vision Research at York University in Toronto. He is the co-author of several books including "Human Spatial Organization", "Human Visual Organization", and with Brian J. Rogers, of "Binocular Vision and Stereopsis" (Oxford University Press, 1995), as well as "Seeing in Depth", (Porteous and Oxford University Press, 2005).
Brain J. Rogers is Professor of Experimental Psychology at Oxford University. He is the author, with Ian P. Howard, "of Binocular Vision and Stereopsis", OUP, 1995 and 'Seeing in Depth", I Porteous and OUP, 2005.