This book was written both by researchers from different disciplines and plant physiologists who have been working together for many years on the production of plants rich in proteins in France and in Europe.
It presents the current status of knowledge on the physiology of the pea crop. To begin with, this book presents vegetative and reproductive development, growth under non-limiting conditions and the nitrogen nutrition of the pea crop. Secondly, the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on the development, the growth and the nitrogen uptake by the plant are studied. Finally, a global model of functioning of the pea crop is proposed as a tool for the diagnosis of the yield limiting factors.
Preamble: Which approaches can be used to analyze pea canopy physiology?; Part I: Function; Vegetative development: The morphogenesis of plant organs; Introduction; Floral initiation and the beginning of flowering; Reproductive development; Branch emergence; Methodological sheet: measurements of developmental stages; Definition of the terms of Monteith's equation; Methods of estimation in the terms of Monteith's equation; Variability sources of interception and absorption; Sources of variability of radiation use efficiency; Dilution curve; Plant N concentration in grain legume crops in relation to developmental stage; Root and nodule establishment and associated carbon costs; Nitrogen nutrition efficiency; Methodologies for measuring symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the field; Carbon and nitrogen fluxes within the plant; Biomass and nitrogen partitioning during crop growth; The seed number; Individual seed weight; Seed protein concentration; Elaboration of germination quality: the determinism of seed fragility; Part II: Analysis of the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses; Abiotic stresses; Influence of water deficits on pea canopy functioning; Effects of high temperature on a pea crop; Nitrogen deficiency; Effects of compacted soil structure; Cold temperatures and the functioning of the canopy in pea; Score card for frost damage; Impact of aschochyta blight on spring PEA functioning yield; Sitona; Weeds; Part III: Integration of knowledge into a global model and examples of application; A model which integrates knowledge on pea crop physiology and agronomic diagnosis; Why develop a pea crop model?; General structure of the crop growth model and minimum data required; Description of modules; Prospects; Proposal for a diagnostic approach to analyse yield variations in peas; Objective and general presentation; Characterisation of the environment; Study of yield elaboration; Example of the use of tools to characterise the environment and the crop: classification of environments and seasons in France and in Europe; Methodology file: measurements of seed profiles and vertical structure; Genotype x environment interaction for yield and protein concentration; Importance of genotype X environment interactions for yield; Weak genotype X environment interactions for protein concentration; Genotype X environment interactions; Can varieties be stable for both yield and protein concentration?; Prospects for legume crops in France and Europe.
Genetics & Ecophysiology of Legumes Unit, INRA, Dijon, France