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About this book
About this book
Various plant metabolites are useful for human life, and the induction and reduction of these metabolites using modern biotechnical technique is of enormous potential important especially in the fields of agriculture and health. Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology describes the biosynthetic pathways of plant metabolites, their function in plants, and some applications for biotechnology.
Topics covered include: * Photosynthetic carbon metabolism * Starch and sugar biosynthesis * Cellulose (cell wall) biosynthesis * Lipid biosynthesis * Nitrogen fixation and assimilation * Sulfur metabolism * Amino acid metabolism * Nucleotide metabolism * Purine alkaloids * Nicotine * Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (morphine, codeine) * Flavonoid metabolism * Pigment metabolism * Use of the metabolome for biotechnology * Application to biomass improvement and biodiesel Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology is an essential guide to this important field for researchers and students of biochemistry, plant biology, metabolic engineering, biotechnology, food science, agriculture, and medicine.
List of Contributors Preface Chapter 1: Biosynthesis and metabolism of starch and sugars Frederik Bornke and Sophia Sonnewald 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Carbon partitioning in mesophyll cells 1.3 Sucrose biosynthesis in source leaves 1.4 Starch metabolism in source leaves 1.5 Sucrose to starch conversion in storage organs 1.6 Metabolic engineering of carbohydrate metabolism 1.7 Engineering soluble sugars 1.8 Production of novel carbohydrates in transgenic plants 1.9 Network analysis of carbohydrate metabolism Acknowledgements References Chapter 2: Lipid biosynthesis David Hildebrand 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Fatty acid synthesis 2.3 Fatty Acid Desaturases 2.4 Lipid Signals 2.5 Algae 2.6 Membrane Synthesis 2.7 TAG Biosynthesis 2.8 Genetic Engineering of Oilseed for Industrial Uses 2.9 Plant Oils as a Renewable Resource Acknowledgements References Chapter 3: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation Hiroshi Kouchi 3.1 Nitrogen fixing organisms and the nitrogenase system 3.2 Symbiotic nodule formation in legume plants 3.3 Mutual interactions between host cells and bacteroids in legume nodules 3.4 Molecular genetic approaches to the host regulation of nitrogen fixation References Chapter 4: Sulfur metabolism Hideki Takahashi 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Sulphate transport 4.3 Sulphate reduction 4.4 Cysteine biosynthesis 4.5 Methionine biosynthesis 4.6 Regulators for coordination of sulphur metabolism Chapter 5: Nucleotide metabolism Rita Zrenner and Hiroshi Ashihara 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pyrimidine metabolism 5.3. Purine metabolism 5.4 Pyridine metabolism 5.5 Biotechnological approaches References Chapter 6: Purine alkaloid metabolism Hiroshi Ashihara, Shinjiro Ogita and Alan Crozier 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Classification of purine alkaloids 6.3 Occurrence of purine alkaloids 6.4 Biosynthesis of caffeine 6.5 Catabolism of caffeine 6.6 Physiological and ecological aspects of purine alkaloid metabolism in plants 6.7 Metabolic engineering of caffeine in planta References Chapter 7: Nicotine biosynthesis Tsubasa Shoji and Takashi Hashimoto 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Pathways and enzymes 7.3 Compartmentation and trafficking 7.4 Gene regulation 7.5 Metabolic engineering 7.6 Summary References Chapter 8: Terpenoid biosynthesis Dae-Kyun Ro 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Terpenoid diversity 8.3 Mechanistic aspects of terpenoid biogenesis 8.4 Terpene synthase - structure, evolution and engineering 8.5 Two distinct pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) biosynthesis 8.6 Subcellular and cellular compartmentalisations of terpenoid metabolism 8.7 Gene clusters in terpenoid metabolism 8.8 Metabolic engineering of terpenoid metabolism 8.9 Concluding remark References Chapter 9: Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis Isabel Desgagne-Penix and Peter J. Facchini 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Biosynthesis 9.3 Localization and transport of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and their biosynthetic enzymes 9.4 Regulation 9.5 Application to biotechnology 9.6 Conclusions References Chapter 10: Monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis Vincenzo De Luca 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthesis 10.3 MIA pathway gene discovery will be enhanced by large-scale sequencing and comparative analyses. 10.4 Developmental and environmental regulation of MIA biosynthesis 10.5 Metabolic engineering using enzymes with altered substrate specificity. 10.6 Conclusion Acknowledgements References Chapter 11: Flavonoid biosynthesis Indu B. Jaganath and Alan Crozier 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Advancements in molecular approaches for flavonoid biosynthetic pathway elucidation 11.3 The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway as it is today 11.4 Conclusions References Chapter 12: Pigment biosynthesis I. Anthocyanins Yoshihiro Ozeki, Yuki Matsuba, Yutaka Abe, Naoyuki Umemoto and Nobuhiro Sasaki 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The anthocyanin synthetic pathway followed by the flavonoid synthetic pathway 12.3 Glycosylation of anthocyanidins 12.4 Acylation of anthocyanin glycosides 12.5 Transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to vacuoles 12.6 Concluding remarks References Chapter 13: Pigment biosynthesis II. Betacyanins and carotenoids Masaaki Sakuta and Akemi Ohmiya 13.1 Betacyanins 13.2 Carotenoids 13.3. Metabolic engineering of carotenoid in food crops References Chapter 14: Metabolomics in biotechnology Yozo Okazaki, Akira Oikawa, Miyako Kusano, Fumio Matsuda and Kazuki Saito 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Analytical technologies 14.3 Informatics Techniques 14.4 Biotechnological application References