The use of biological control agents has been increasing worldwide and there are now many companies mass-producing such organisms, particularly for the control of insect pests. However, there is a need for strict quality control in the production and use of these natural enemies, which include parasitoids, fungi and viruses. Written by scientists from Europe and North America, this book provides both background theory and practical guidance on this subject.
Section 1; 1. What is costing; 2. The Framework of Cost Accounting; 3. Classification and Coding; 4. Materials - Purchasing, Reception and Storage; 5. Materials - Stock Recording and Inventory Control; 6. Materials - Pricing Issues and Stocks; Section 2; 7. Labour - Renumeration methods; 8. Labour - Recording, Costing and Allied Procedures; 9. Overheads; 10. Cost Accounts; Section 3; 11. Costing Methods - Introduction; 12. Costing methods - Job and Batch costing; 13. Costing methods - Contract costing; 14. Costing methods - Operation and service costing; 15. Costing methods - Process costing; 16. Costing methods - Joint product and by-product costing; Section 4; 17. Planning, Control and Decision Making; 18. Cost behaviour; 19. Marginal and Absorption Costing; 20. Short Run Decision Making; 21. Break Even Analysis; 22. Capital Investment and Appraisal; Section 5; 23 Budgets; 24 Standard Costing - Introduction; 25 Standard Costing - variance analysis (Material, labour and overheads); 26. Standard Costing - variance analysis (Sales and standard Marginal costs); 27. Uniform costing; 28. Costing and Computers; Case Exercises; Examination Technique; Solutions to Exercises and Examination Questions