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About this book
About this book
This book explores how reforestation might be carried out both to conserve biological diversity and to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor. While both issues have attracted considerable attention in recent years, this book takes a significant step, by integrating ecological and silvicultural knowledge within the context of the social and economic issues that can determine the success or failure of tropical forest landscape restoration.
Describing new approaches to the reforestation of degraded lands in the Asia-Pacific tropics, the author reviews current approaches to reforestation throughout the region, paying particular attention to those which incorporate native species - including in multi-species plantations. It presents case studies from across the Asia-Pacific region and discusses how the silvicultural methods needed to manage these 'new' plantations will differ from conventional methods. It also explores how reforestation might be made more attractive to smallholders and how trade-offs between production and conservation are most easily made at a landscape scale.
This book concludes with a discussion of how future forest restoration may be affected by some current ecological and socio-economic trends now underway.
Preface; Abbreviations; Chapter 1: Deforestation and its Consequences in the Asia-Pacific region; Introduction; Deforestation rates; The new landscapes; Estimates of the area of 'degraded' land potentially available for reforestation; Assessing the extent of biodiversity losses; Consequences of deforestation and biodiversity loss; Is the Protected Area network able to protect regional biodiversity? Conclusions; References; Chapter 2: Forest and Land Degradation in the Asia-Pacific Region; Introduction; Natural disturbances; Human uses of forest; Environmental determinants of deforestation; The socio-economic context -- a short history of deforestation in China and Japan; Deforestation and degradation in the Asia-Pacific region; Seven forest and land degradation Case Studies; Lessons emerging from these Case Studies about the causes of forest and land degradation; Thresholds and forest transitions; Conclusions; References; Chapter 3: Reforestation, Conservation and Livelihoods; Introduction; Defining and assessing rural poverty; Natural forests and livelihoods; Biodiversity Conservation or Livelihood Improvements? Reforestation to enhance livelihoods and foster biodiversity conservation; The role of land tenure; Land tenure and reforestation; Community forestry; Community or private reforestation? Conclusions; References; Chapter 4: Different Types of Reforestation; Introduction; A conceptual model of degradation and forest restoration; Choosing between Ecological Restoration, Plantation Monocultures and Rehabilitation; Degradation and resilience; Building resilience during reforestation; Conclusions; References; Chapter 5: Natural Regeneration and Secondary Forests; Introduction; Defining secondary forests; Natural regeneration at disturbed sites; Environmental services provided by secondary forests; Using natural succession to overcome degradation; Accelerating successional development; Managing established secondary forests; Using secondary forests to create agroforests; Conclusion; References; Chapter 6: Monocultural Plantations; Introduction; Reasons for establishing plantations; Implementing reforestation on degraded lands; The particular case of mine site rehabilitation; The standard plantation model; Limitations of this standard model; The hazards of monocultures; Species choices; Sources of information on species choices; Problems needed resolution before using a wider range of species in reforestation programs; Monoculture plantations, biodiversity and environmental services; Conclusions; References; Chapter 7: Mixed-species Plantings; Introduction; Some potential advantages of mixed-species plantations; Species functional types; Designs for mixed-species plantations; Identifying ecologically complementary species; Some management issues; Mixtures at a landscape scale -- a mosaic of monocultures; Providing environmental services; Conclusions; References; Chapter 8: Ecological Restoration; Introduction; Re-assembling forest ecosystems; Examples of Ecological Restoration of tropical forests; Some tentative principles governing the ways in which forest ecosystems might be restored; In practice; Direct seeding; The social context; Monitoring and adaptive management; Conclusions; References; Chapter 9: Income for Farmers from Tree-planting; Introduction; Markets for forest products -- examples from Vietnam; Forest product markets elsewhere in the Asia-Pacific region; Market chains; Financial models of different plantation designs; The financial profitability of tree-growing elsewhere in the Asia-Pacific region; Reforestation businesses; Payments for environmental services; The carbon market; Increasing the income received by tree-growers; Conclusions; References; Chapter 10: Assisting Farmers to Undertake Reforestation; Introduction; Farmers and the farming environment; Making reforestation attractive to farmers; The transition away from traditional forms of silviculture; Reforestation following government assistance; Reforestation with assistance from private timber companies; Reforestation with assistance from Non Government Organisations; Are partnerships enough? The role of incentives; Building socially resilient forms of reforestation; Judging success from a farmer's perspective; Conclusion; References; Chapter 11: Reforestation at a Landscape Scale; Introduction; The nature of landscape mosaics; Ecological processes in evolving landscape; Building resilience at the landscape scale; How much reforestation? Where to undertake reforestation? What types of reforestation at particular locations? Planning Forest Landscape Restoration; Approaches and decision-support tools for Forest Landscape Restoration; Conclusions; References; Chapter 12: Developing Institutions to Support Reforestation; Introduction; The future context? Undertaking reforestation in future; New institutional changes to encourage reforestation; Revisiting resilience; Conclusions; References; Chapter 13: Conclusions; Introduction; Alternative visions of the future; Some things we still need to know; Finally; Glossary of terms; Index
547 pages, illus
From the reviews: "David Lamb's book is welcome because it examines the issues of reforestation and afforestation from an ecosystem perspective ! . The text is generously supported by case studies and ! it contains much that will be interest to those involved in forest conservation and management throughout the tropics. ! This book is the best in its class by far and should be available to all persons in forest and natural resource agencies as well as in the NGOs who often invest in tree planting." (Jeffrey Sayer, Tropical Conservation Science, Vol. 4 (1), 2011) "The central theme of linking the restoration method to ecology and ecosystem services continues, again supported by case studies. ! This book is an absolute gem for anyone involved in forest restoration, it is well written ! . This is a researcher's book ! any research laboratory involved in ecological restoration generally, and on tropical forests (in particular) will find this book should be kept readily to hand." (Rob Marrs, Biological Conservation, 2011)