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The Indo-Pacific gobiid genus Stonogobiops Polunin and Lubbock is most closely related to Cryptocentrus, differing principally in the gill membranes forming a free fold across the isthmus and in the structure of the vomer (each protruding half of which bears one to four large recurved teeth) and palatines. It consists of four small species (largest 54 mm SL): the type species S. dracula Polunin and Lubbock, known only from the Seychelles and Maldives; medon, n. sp., an apparent endemic to the Marquesas Islands; xanthorhinica, n. sp., which ranges from Japan to the Great Barrier Reef; and nematodes, n. sp., described from a single specimen from the Philippines. S. dracula is distinctive in having I,10 second dorsal and I,9 anal rays and a short rounded first dorsal fin. S. medan has predorsal scales (absent on other species) extending to above preopercle. S. xanthorhinica has I,11 second dorsal and I, 10 anal rays; its first four dorsal spines are prolonged (longer on males, up to 1.85 in SL). S. nematodes has I,l2 second dorsal and I,11 anal rays; the first and second dorsal spines are extremely elongate, 1.45 in SL. These fishes are all pale with a dark bar on the postorbital head and nape and three on the body (except adults of S. medon which lose the bars on the body). They live symbiotically with alpheid shrimps in burrows on sand bottoms. The shrimps construct the burrows, and the gobies serve as sentinels. The species of Stonogobiops are usually seen in pairs hovering above the entrance to the burrow. They have been collected in the depth range of 3-45 m.
A number of gobioid fishes have been reported (particularly by Herre) to have teeth on the vomer. However, we find true vomerine teeth only in the eleotrid genus Bostrychus Lacepède, three undescribed gobioid genera, the Indo-Pacific gobiid genus Ptereleotris (though the teeth are easily detached), the monotypic Atlantic genera Vomerogobius Gilbert and Palatogobius Gilbert, one species of the gobiid genus Cryptocentrus Valenciennes, and Stonogobiops.
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