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The subgenera Polypedilum (Polypedilum) Kieffer and P. (Uresipedilum) Oyewo and Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) are revised for the Nearctic region. Four subgenera in the genus Polypedilum, P. (Polypedilum) Kieffer, P. (Pentapedilum) Kieffer, P. (Tripodura) Townes, and P. (Uresipedilum) Oyewo and Sæther are recognized. Adult males for 30 (P. (P.) calopterum is not keyed nor described), larvae for 15, and pupae for 17, of the 31 species in the two subgenera are described. Adult females are not treated. Nine species are described as new: P. (P.) angulum sp. nov., P. (P.) atrichon sp. nov., P. (P.) bergi sp. nov., P. (P.) castornama sp. nov., P. (P.) crassum sp. nov., P. (P.) falciforme sp. nov., P. (P.) nymphaeorum sp. nov., P. (P.) prolixipartum sp. nov. and P. (P.) tuberculum sp. nov. Eighteen species in P. (Polypedilum) fit into three species groups based mostly on adult characters. Adult, larval, and pupal characters can show significant disagreement in species associations. Keys to species are included for larvae and pupae in the genus Polypedilum and to the species of adult males in the subgenera P. (Polypedilum) and P. (Uresipedilum). Adult male Polypedilum (sensu lato) of the Nearctic region can be separated from most other Chironominae genera by the triangular shaped (narrowed anteriorly) eighth abdominal tergite, the strong, evenly spaced, gonostylar medial setae, and the bifid pulvilli. Some larval and pupal Polypedilum can only be separated from other Chironominae genera by a combination of characters. The genus is found nearly world wide and some species are very common. Larvae live in a very broad range of aquatic habitats.