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In recent years there has been increased interest in growing willow and poplar trees, as fast-growing species that have several purposes, including use as biofuels for energy production. However, silviculture of these trees has been constrained by diseases such as Melampsora rusts. This book provides a comprehensive review of over two decades of extensive study of the rust diseases affecting willow and poplar. It provides insights into the population biology of Melampsora rusts in Europe, China, India and Chile, the genetics of their resistance, and their interaction with their hosts. The book offers information essential to the development of effective and sustainable disease control measures including the use of willow genotype mixtures and biological control agents.
Section 1: Taxonomy and overview of Rusts; Phylogenetic position of Melampsora in rust fungi inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences, M H Pei, C Bayon and C Ruiz, Rothamsted Research, UK; A brief review of Melampsora rusts on Salix, M H Pei; The species of Melampsora on Salix (Salicaceae), G Bagyanarayana, Osmania University, India; A brief summary of Melampsora species on Populus, M H Pei, and Y Z Shang, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, China; Section 2: Occurrence and population biology of Melampsora; Variability and population biology of Melampsora rusts on poplars, P Frey, INRA, France, P Gerard, Universite Paris-Sud, France, N Feau, Universite Laval, Canada, C Husson and J Pinon, INRA, France; Genetic diversity of Melampsora willow rusts in Germany, M Liesebach, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Austria, and I Zaspel, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Germany; Genetic structure of Melampsora larici-epitea populations in north-western Europe, B Samils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Current taxonomic status of Melampsora species on poplars in China, C-M Tian, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, China, and M Kakishima, University of Tsukuba, Japan; Current status of poplar leaf rust in India, R C Sharma, S Sharma and K R Sharma, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, India; Melampsora Willow Rust in Chile and northern Europe; Part of a metapopulation?, M Ramstedt and S Hurtado, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Section 3: Rust Resistance and Infection Process; Disease scoring by taking inoculum densities into consideration in leaf disc inoculations with poplar and willow rust, M H Pei, and T Hunter, Bristol, UK; Interactions between poplar clones and Melampsora populations and their Implications for breeding for durable resistance, J Pinon and P Frey; Transgenic hybrid aspen with altered defensive chemistry - a model system to study the chemical basis of resistance?, J Witzell and M Karlsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, M Rodriguez-Buey, Umea University, Sweden, and M Torp and G Wingsle, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Basidiospore-derived penetration by species of Cronartium and Melampsora: an outline, A Ragazzi, N Longo, B Naldini, S Moricca, Universita di Firenze, Italy, and I Dellavalle, CNR, Italy; Section 4: Rust Management; Host diversity, epidemic progression and pathogen evolution, C C Mundt, Oregon State University, USA; SRC willow mixtures and rust disease development, A R McCracken, W M Dawson, Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, UK, and D Carlisle, Queen's University of Belfast, UK; SRC willow mixtures and yield, W M Dawson, A R McCracken and D Carlisle; Effect of preventative fungicide sprays on Melampsora rust of poplar in the nursery, R C Sharma, S Sharma, and A K Gupta, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, India Section 5: Rust mycoparasites and their potential for biological control; Biocontrol of rust fungi by Cladosporium tenuissimum, S Moricca, A Ragazzi and G Assante, Universita di Milano, Italy; Biology and genetic diversity of the rust hyperparasite Sphaerellopsis filum in Central Europe, M Liesebach and I Zaspel; Sphaerellopsis filum and its potential for biological control of willow rusts, M H Pei, and Z W Yuan, Institute of Applied Ecology, China