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Written by a recognized expert, and based on his experience in teaching the subject to students with a variety of educational backgrounds, The Science of Grapevines: Anatomy and Physiology is the only book to comprehensively explore the physiology of the grapevine as it occurs around the world. While other books have focused on the vines of specific regions, the globalization of the wine industry and the resulting increase of lands around the world being used for grapevine cultivation has left a gap in information. This book addresses not only the specific issues and concerns of grapevines from regions around the world, but includes important emerging topics such as global climate change, water relations, temperature effect and more.
The truly unique approach of The Science of Grapevines: Anatomy and Physiology is the scientifically-grounded exploration, often applying discoveries in other plant species, of the main physiological processes underlying grapevine form and function, their interactions, developmental and environmental control, and their implications for practical vineyard management. This work focuses on the physiology of the whole plant rather than at the cellular and organ levels providing an understanding of whole-plant function. It offers comprehensive coverage of role of water relations and temperature impact that prepares the reader for changing climate impact. It includes European, North and South American grapes and grape-related industry information providing important insights into implications of differences – and similarities.
Chapter 1 Botany and Anatomy
1.1 Botanical classification and geographical distribution
1.2 Cultivars, clones and rootstocks
1.3 Morphology and anatomy
Chapter 2 Phenology and Growth Cycle
2.1 Seasons and daylength
2.2 Vegetative cycle
2.3 Reproductive cycle
Chapter 3 Water Relations and Nutrient Uptake
3.1 Osmosis, water potential and cell expansion
3.2 Transpiration and stomatal action
3.3 Water and nutrient uptake and transport
Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Respiration
4.1 Light absorption and energy capture
4.2 Carbon uptake and assimilation
Chapter 5 Partitioning of Assimilates
5.1 Photosynthate translocation and distribution
5.2 Canopy-environment interactions
5.3 Nitrogen assimilation and interaction with carbon metabolism
Chapter 6 Developmental Physiology
6.1 Yield formation
6.2 Grape composition and fruit quality
Chapter 7 Environmental Constraints and Stress Physiology
7.1 Responses to stress
7.2 Water: too much or too little
7.3 Nutrients: deficiency and excess
7.4 Temperature: too cold or too warm
7.5 Living with other organisms: defense and damage
Dr. Markus Keller received his master's degree in agronomy (plant science) and doctorate in natural sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. He has taught and conducted research in viticulture and grapevine physiology in three continents and is the author of numerous scientific and technical papers and industry articles in addition to being a frequent speaker at scientific conferences and industry meetings and workshops. He also has extensive practical experience in both the vineyard and winery as a result of work in the family enterprise and was awarded the Swiss AgroPrize for innovative contributions to Switzerland's agricultural industry.
"A comprehensive study of grapevine physiology that focuses on the physical and biological functions of the whole vine and their response to the environment [...] . Highly recommended."
– Wines & Vines
"A significant addition to the viticulture literature. Keller (Washington State Univ.) chronicles current knowledge and introduces recent findings at the forefront of scientific understanding of plant processes and physiology. These findings come from viticulture research as well as research related to other perennial and annual plants. The presentation is clear and will be readily understood by all plant scientists, viticulturists in particular. Keller offers a wealth of supporting literature gleaned during viticultural experiences in Switzerland, New York, Australia, and Washington State. Experiences with grapevines cultured over a range of limiting environmental conditions are the basis for the excellent photographs, figures, and tables that exemplify the text material. The text is logically organized, and each topic flows fluidly into the next. This book will be a valuable resource for all instructors of viticulture students and should be owned and read by every critical-thinking plant scientist who has responsibility for grape and wine research. Keller presents a needed, fresh, well-written view of the science of this most fascinating biological organism, the grapevine. Summing Up: Highly recommended."
"Professor Markus Keller has written an extraordinary text book of grapevine physiology, whose nature and scope exceed anything available in the English language. While the title is The Science of Grapevines, Anatomy and Physiology, there is far more physiology than anatomy, and of the physiology much of it is at the whole plant level. Where necessary, Keller however invokes explanations at organ tissue or cell level, but the major emphasis is to understand the grapevine's response to its environment. The author makes no apology to use data from other plants where necessary. This leads Keller to propose, in his preface, that such knowledge "might help [...] further our understanding of the world's most important and arguably most malleable fruit crop". Why is this book so extraordinary? Because it is so well referenced! There are 310 pages of text, divided into 7 very logical chapters. There are 57 pages of references, containing an estimated 1 650 citations. These are very comprehensive, of necessity mostly contemporary, but including reference to Charles Darwin's studies with the grapevine published in 1875, the first viticulture text book I have seen to do this. Keller's magnificent book is a gift to teachers and students of grapevine physiology. It is easy to read, and well indexed. There are limited illustrations and colour photographs from the authors collection. The book's strength is in the comprehensive and integrative treatment of grapevine physiology."
– Dr Richard E Smart, Smart Viticulture and RuralSmart, Tasmania, Australia
"Markus Keller has done a great favor to passionate grape growers around the globe. He has written a user friendly textbook about how grapevines work. Many grape growers do not have formal education in viticulture and lack a foundation of knowledge in biology and plant science. While it is not essential to have a deep understanding about how a grapevine works, just as having a rudimentary understanding of how the human body works, this knowledge can lead to better plant maintenance and health. Above all, Dr. Keller's book connects the scientific to the practical, which is what all farmers crave. The typical grape grower possesses a intellectual curiosity and relationship with the vine and wants to know why things happen in the vineyard. It is a worthy successor to Mullin's, et al. Biology of the Grapevine (1992), for example, updating the correct scientific name for crown gall (Agrobacterium vitis) and offering suggestions about how to treat affected vines. Photographs, illustrations, graphs and charts are all carefully selected and help to illuminate selected topics in the text. It was especially inventive to adopt the Consumer Reports-style rating system for the agronomic characteristics of important grapevine rootstocks (Table 1.3). Correct canopy management is a core practice to every competent grape grower and can greatly influence fruit quality every growing season. Dr. Keller provides his exact "ideal" canopy parameters that growers can use for their vines to achieve the balance and quality necessary to produce high quality grapes. As grape growers push their vines and fruit past veraison into the critical ripening period Dr. Keller explains the contribution of the essential components of light, temperature, water, nutrients and yield to achieving optimal fruit maturity. Finally, as growers push vines to their physiological limits in order to produce ever riper fruit, diseases, viruses and abiotic stresses have become an increasingly important part of vineyard management and sustainability, and these are thoroughly covered in The Science of Grapevines. Whether you have a degree in viticulture or not, or consider yourself a science person or not, this is essential reading. The reference section alone provides a lifetime's worth of reading about the essential nature of the vine, more than any grower or extension educator like myself could ever wish to consume. I wish all readers of this fine book could know Markus Keller. The book reads exactly as Markus thinks and speaks, with great passion, informality, humor and every sentence is packed with information. I believe you will emerge from reading this book a better grape grower, and that will very likely have a positive impact on the quality of your grapes and your bottom line."
– Mark L. Chien, Penn State Cooperative Extension, College of Agricultural Sciences, Lancaster PA, USA