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Toxicology of (1-3) Glucans

Edited By: Shih-Houng Young

CRC Press

Hardback | Dec 2005 | #150628 | ISBN: 041570037X
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NHBS Price: £79.99 $105/€91 approx

About this book

The investigation of indoor air quality has shown that microbial contamination is often a problem in buildings. Recent evidence indicates that fungi are often a part of the picture. A component of the fungal cell wall, 1 3- -glucans not only affect human health, they are a marker for the existence of fungi in environmental samples. Toxicology of 1 3- -Glucans covers the basic chemistry and immunobiology of these substances. The authors begin by introducing current methods for detecting 1 3- -glucans in environmental samples and reviewing risk evaluation in the environment. They go on to discuss numerous topics including likely occupational and environmental exposure, studies suggesting a strong link between environmental glucan concentrations and pulmonary inflammation, and signal transduction pathways and specific receptors. No other book currently available brings together the expertise of leading international researchers to provide a straightforward monograph on the toxicology of 1 3- -glucans. It pulls together current knowledge of these compounds, their effects, measurement, monitoring, and risk assessment.


INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF b-GLUCANS, D. Williams, D. Lowman, and H. EnsleyIntroductionWhat are Fungal Glucans?Physicochemical Characterization of GlucansImmunobiology of GlucansRecognition and Binding of Glucans by Membrane ReceptorsThe Influence of Glucan Polymer Molecular Weight, Structure and Solution Conformation on Binding to (1?3)-?-D-Glucan ReceptorsGlucan Receptors Differentially Recognize Glucan Polymers Based on Solution Conformation and Molecular WeightIdentification of Dectin-1 and Scavenger Receptors as Glucan Specific Membrane ReceptorsActivation of Pro-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Intracellular Signaling Pathways by GlucansEffect of Glucans on Cytokine and Growth Factor ExpressionAnti-Inflammatory Activity of GlucansConclusionsReferencesHEALTH EFFECTS OF (1?3)-?-GLUCAN: THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, J. DouwesIntroductionField StudiesHuman Challenge StudiesThe Epidemiological EvidenceControl of (1?3)-?-D-Glucan Exposure in the Home and Work EnvironmentResearch NeedsConclusionsReferences(1?3)-b-D-GLUCAN IN THE ENVIRONMENT - A RISK ASSESSMENT, R. RylanderIntroductionGeneral ConsiderationsAnimal Inhalation StudiesHuman Inhalation StudiesSynthesisApplication to Field StudiesEnvironmental Risk EvaluationConclusionReferencesANIMAL MODEL OF (1?3)-b-D-GLUCANS-INDUCED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN RATS, S.-H. Young and V. CastranovaIntroduction: Why Study 1?3-b-Glucans?What is the Cause of Controversy Regarding Glucan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation Studies?Important Factors Determining the Biological Activity of 1?3-b-GlucansWhy Choose Zymosan as the Test Glucan in Animal Studies?Similarities between Symptoms Observed in Workers and Responses in an Animal ModelParameters Monitored in the Animal ModelDose-Response Relationship of Zymosan A-Induced Pulmonary InflammationTime Course of Recovery from Zymosan A ExposureWhich form of Zymosan, Soluble or Particulate, Causes Greater Inflammation?Which Conformation of Particulate Zymosan A, Partially Open Triple-Helix vs. Closed Triple-Helix, Induces Greater Pulmonary Inflammation in Rats ?Conclusions from Zymosan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation StudiesPre-Treatment with 1?3-b-Glucans Modifies Endotoxin ResponseConclusion and Need for Developing Methods for Analyzing Insoluble GlucansReferencesb-GLUCANS RECEPTOR(S) AND THEIR SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, Y. AdachiIntroductionSoluble b-Glucan Recognition Proteins1,3-b-Glucan Receptors on the Plasma Membrane of LeukocytesConcluding RemarksReferencesFATE OF b-GLUCANS IN VIVO, -- ORGAN DISTRIBUTION AND DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF FUNGAL b-GLUCANS IN THE BODY, N.N. MiuraIntroductionStudy of Organ Distribution Using a Metabolically Labeled form of SSG from Sclerotinia sclerotiorumStudy of Blood b-Glucan Concentrations Using the Limulus TestAnalysis of Internal Accumulation Using a Metabolically Labeled Form of Can

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