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What are Species? is an extended argument for abandoning the various single concepts and the "species" rank. The author proposes that the rank of "species" be replaced by a pluralistic view. In such taxonomy, the smallest identifiable lineages would be used within various divergent phylogenies in a context dependent manner. In such a view, "species" represents different sorts of things depending on the organism/lineage being considered. In practice, this is what is already done although it is not formally recognized.
History and Background of Species Concepts
- The Author's Personal History of Grappling with Species Concepts Over a 30-Year Period
What Should the Species Level Represent Within the Current Ranked Codes of Nomenclature, Botanical, Zoological and Bacterial?
- The Need for Pluralism Because of Different Biologies in Different Taxa
- A Phylogenetic Species Concept
What Should Happen to Taxa at the Traditional Species Level Under a Rankless Code of Nomenclature?
- General Principles of Rankless Classification. Getting Rid of the Species Rank.
What Would the World Be Like Without the Species Rank?
- Practical Issues: Conservation, Inventories and Field Guides
- Scientific Issues: How to Proceed in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology?
Philosophical Issues: What Evolves? What Interacts in an Ecosystem? Who Are the Actors in the "Ecological Theater and the Evolutionary Play?"