By: AM Johnson and RC Fletcher
Much recent work in structural geology has been conducted to understand the forms of fold structures and their mode of origin. Most of this work has transpired without appeal to the principles and practice of solid mechanics. Instead, fold forms have been hypothesized to arise via motions that can be expressed by simple geometric relation. However, this approach is incapable of realizing any material under physically realistic boundary conditions. In this treatise, the authors formulate a variety of mechanisms of folding in layered rock in terms of basic governing equations and boundary conditions. By applying simple rheological law, many quantitative results are derived via elementary analysis. These results are then used to interpret structural features and provide insight into the underlying process of formation. Each topic is introduced through one or more natural examples. After mastering this material, the reader will be better prepared to follow up with studies that rely on the use of more complex rheological laws. Included are appendices covering the formulation of rheological equations for viscous, power-law and general non-linear fluids; use of the Fourier series; derivation and simplification of the Navier Stokes equations; and the evolution of layer interfaces.
The authors show how a relatively few general mechanisms of folding, when combined with a wide variety of conditions, can give rise to a large range of fold geometries. Three basic mechanisms are considered by which layers can become folded, namely layer parallel shortening, ramp folding and density instability.... The book focuses on folding by the mechanism of layer parallel shortening, to which four chapters are dedicated, but chapters on density instability, ramp folding and sliding on weak interfaces are also included.... [R]epresents a major contribution to structural geology and will inevitably become essential reading for students and researchers interested in the initiation and propagation of folds and diapirs. -- "Geoscientist"
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