Books  Sustainable Development  Agriculture & Food 

Seed Potato Technology

Handbook / Manual

Edited By: P C Struik and S G Wiersema

382 pages, Figs, tabs

Wageningen Academic Publishers

Paperback | Dec 1999 | #112954 | ISBN: 9074134653
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £90.00 $115/€107 approx

About this book

A manual of basic knowledge on how to produce, multiply and use propagation material in seed potato production and supply systems world wide. Healthy, vigorous seed tubers are essential in potato production. Producing them used to be expensive and difficult. Multiplication rates in the field are low, seed-borne diseases are numerous and seed tubers lose quality during storage between growing seasons. But novel methods have revolutionized the seed potato industry. This has resulted in a diversity of seed production systems adjusted to the local potential and needs. This text summarizes the knowledge and assesses the efficient use of modern technology in different stages of seed production. It describes what seed quality means, how (pre-)basic seed can be produced, how this can be multiplied, and how seed health is maintained. It also describes diverse examples of seed supply systems in different regions of the world. The book is aimed at agronomists, farm advisors, seed producers, breeders, and those involved in seed policies, seed programme development and seed trade. It is also designed for students in agronomy, horticulture and plant breeding.


Contents

1. Introduction 17; 1.1. The potato crop is important 19; 1.2. The potato is special 26; 1.3. Several ways to multiply the potato 27; 1.4. High quality seed tubers matter! 28; 1.5. Readers' guide to this book 31; 2. Yield formation of a seed potato crop 33; 2.1. What does a potato plant look like? 35; 2.2. Crop ecology of plant growth and tuber formation 37; 2.3. How to calculate yield 43; 2.4. Yield can be described by yield components 43; 2.5. Yield is affected by environmental factors and cultivar 47; 3. Development of cultivars 51; 3.1. Introduction 53; 3.2. How to obtain new cultivars 55; 3.2.1. Testing and selecting existing cultivars 55; 3.2.2. Selection within a population of breeding materials 58; 3.2.3. Complete breeding programme 59; 4. Quality characteristics of seed tubers 65; 4.1. Introduction 67; 4.2. Size of seed tuber or seed piece affects quality 69; 4.2.1. Number of eyes 69; 4.2.2. Plant vigour 71; 4.3. Physiological age determines number and vigour of sprouts 75; 4.4. Number of main stems per tuber determines stem density 87; 4.4.1. How many sprouts per tuber? 87; 4.4.2. How many sprouts develop into main stems? 87; 4.5. Tuber health 89; 4.6. Are all cultivars behaving similarly? 91. 5. Control and manipulation of physiological seed tuber quality 95; 5.1. Conditions during seed tuber production affect physiological seed tuber quality 97; 5.1.1. There is variation within seed lots 101; 5.1.2. There is variation between seed lots 103; 5.1.3. Haulm destruction influences physiological seed quality 105; 5.1.3.1. Tuber maturity at haulm destruction 105; 5.1.3.2. Method of haulm destruction 106; 5.1.3.3. Duration of the interval between defoliation and harvest 107; 5.1.3.4. Haulm treatments before haulm destruction 108; 5.1.4. Physical factors influence physiological ageing 108; 5.1.4.1. Temperature during tuber growth 109; 5.1.4.2. Temperature during skin set and early storage 110; 5.1.4.3. Interaction between growing temperatures and storage temperatures 110; 5.1.4.4. Photoperiod during tuber growth 111; 5.1.4.5. Light intensity during tuber growth 112; 5.1.4.6. Rainfall 112; 5.1.5. Agronomic factors 113; 5.2. Conditions during storage modify physiological seed tuber quality 113; 5.2.1. Temperature 116; 5.2.2. Combining storage temperature with foliar GA application before harvesting 121; 5.2.3. Relative air humidity 123; 5.2.4. Composition of the atmosphere 123; 5.2.5. Light and photoperiod 124; 5.2.6. De-sprouting 127; 5.3. Treatments after storage manipulate physiological seed tuber quality 128; 5.3.1. Chemical breaking of dormancy 128; 5.3.2. Cutting of seed tubers 128; 5.3.3. Chitting and pre-sprouting 131; 6. Control and manipulation of seed tuber health 135; 6.1. Introduction 137; 6.2. Viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas 138; 6.3. Bacteria 149; 6.4. Fungi 153; 6.5. Nematodes 165; 6.6. Insects 171; 7. Production of pre-basic seed 173; 7.1. Introduction 175; 7.1.1. Rationale of multiplication systems 176; 7.1.2. Why rapid multiplication? 177; 7.1.3. Genetic drift 177. 7.2. In vitro systems 178; 7.2.1. Nodal cuttings 179; 7.2.2. Microtubers 181; 7.3. Systems in protected or well-controlled environments 185; 7.3.1. Sprout cuttings 185; 7.3.2. Stem cuttings 186; 7.3.3. Leaf-bud cuttings 189; 7.3.4. Single-node cuttings 190; 7.3.5. Minitubers 193; 7.3.5.1. Hydroponic systems 194; 7.3.5.2. Systems on solid media without repetitive harvesting 195; 7.3.5.3. Systems on solid media with repetitive harvesting 197; 7.4. Systems under field conditions, with emphasis on clonal selection 202; 7.5. Field performance of (pre-)basic plant materials 203; 7.5.1. In vitro plants 206; 7.5.2. Tubers 206; 7.5.3. In vivo cuttings and transplants 210; 7.6. Comparing pre-basic seed production systems 212; 8. Agronomy of seed potato production 217; 8.1. Introduction 219; 8.2. Crop husbandry to influence tuber number and physiological quality 221; 8.2.1. How to manipulate tuber number 221; 8.2.2. How to protect the progeny tubers and influence their shape 228; 8.2.3. How to manipulate the physiological age of progeny tubers 230; 8.3. How to manage seed tuber health 231; 8.4. Other aspects of crop husbandry with multiple effects 234; 8.5. Overview of the differences in crop management between seed tuber production and ware production 240; 9. True potato seed (TPS) 243; 9.1. Introduction 245; 9.2. Characteristics of TPS 246; 9.3. How to produce TPS 249; 9.3.1. Components of TPS yield 249; 9.3.2. Plant growth, flowering and berry set 249; 9.3.3. Genetic aspects 250; 9.3.3.1. Open pollinated seed 250; 9.3.3.2. Hybrid seed 251; 9.3.4. Influence of environmental factors and genotype 253; 9.3.5. Effects of crop husbandry 255; 9.4. How to make use of TPS 255; 9.4.1. Direct sowing of TPS in the field 256. 9.4.2. Use of seedling transplants derived from TPS 258; 9.4.3. Use of seed tubers derived from TPS 260; 9.5. Comparison of different TPS propagules 264; 9.6. Developments and future prospects of TPS use 265; 10. Quality control and seed certification 269; 10.1. Introduction 271; 10.1.1. Quality control and seed certification are necessary 271; 10.1.2. Quality control, inspection and certification require a legal framework, international conventions and agreements 274; 10.2. Control of seed quality and seed inspection 275; 10.2.1. Formal seed programmes are linked to other formal and informal bodies 275; 10.2.2. Seed inspection involves many organisations and other actors 277; 10.2.3. Main principles of quality control and seed inspection 278; 10.2.4. Inspection procedures 279; 10.2.5. Main quarantine diseases and methods to limit their spread 286; 10.3. Seed certification systems 286; 10.3.1. Organisation and management of seed certification 286; 10.3.2. What do seed certification agencies do? 288; 10.3.3. Administrative procedures 289; 10.3.4. Examples: the internal seed certification systems of Brazil and the Netherlands 290; 10.4. Seed certification standards 291; 10.4.1. Possible seed certification standards 291; 10.4.2. Assessment of standards 292; 10.4.3. How to implement an efficient seed certification system 293; 11. Seed supply systems 297; 11.1. Practical aspects of supply systems 299; 11.1.1. Process of seed tuber degeneration 299; 11.1.2. Rate of multiplication 301; 11.1.3. Implications for seed multiplication 302; 11.2. Supply systems of seed tubers 302; 11.2.1. Formal seed systems 303; 11.2.2. Informal seed systems 308; 11.2.3. Interaction between formal and informal seed systems 308; 11.2.4. On-farm methods of maintaining seed quality 309; 11.3. Supply systems of true potato seed 312.

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