Recently developed genomic tools, like SNP-genotyping and whole genome sequencing, and their analysis, offer great opportunities for the conservation and utilisation of animal genetic diversity, both among and within breeds. These genomic tools can be used to detect potentially valuable rare alleles and haplotypes. They are important parts of the genetic diversity we need to conserve now for possible utilisation in the future. Genomic Management of Animal Genetic Diversity describes the use of genomic technology to define breeds and to assess important features in the history of breeds affecting the present genetic diversity. The management of genetic diversity with genomic tools is outlined both in vitro: gene banks, and in vivo: small populations of rare breeds or large populations with small effective population sizes. Special attention is given to the genomic management of populations of animals with high incidences of multiple genetic defects. Genomic Management of Animal Genetic Diversity is intended for MSc and PhD students as well as scientists working with small populations in animal breeding and in conservation programmes for rare breeds.