Part I An overview, Rhys Jenkins: introduction; environmental regulation, international competitiveness and the location of industry; environmental regulation and competitiveness in the European Union. Part II Environmental regulations, globalization of production and technological change - the iron and steel sector, Jonathan Barton: the industry and its environmental impacts; the European Union iron and steel sector; steel and environment - industrializing and transitional economies. Part III Leather tanning - environmental regulations, competitiveness and locational shifts, Jan Hesselberg, Hege Knutsen: the global tanning industry - a commodity chain approach; the tanning industry in Western Europe; tanning in Eastern Europe, Brazil, Mexico and India. Part IV Environmental regulation and industrial restructuring - the case of the fertilizer industry, Anthony Bartzokas: technological trends and industrial organization in the European fertilizer industry; the fertilizer industry in developing countries. Part V Conclusion, Rhys Jenkins: environmental regulation, trade and investment in a global economy.