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Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting

Monograph

Series: Geophysical Monograph Series Volume: 170

By: Rachel Abercrombie (Editor), Art McGarr (Editor), Hiroo Kanamori (Editor), Giulio Di Toro (Editor)

334 pages, illustrations

American Geophysical Union

Hardback | Jan 2006 | #231674 | ISBN: 0875904351
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £62.95 $79/€75 approx

About this book

Earthquakes, from the smallest to the largest, release elastic strain energy. Where does this energy go? How much is radiated and how much is expended in other source processes, such as overcoming fault friction? Do large and small earthquakes differ with regard to rupture physics? Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting examines such questions and current debates from five vantage points:
- How we measure earthquake energy
- Effects of earthquake size and tectonic setting
- Insights from numerical simulations
- Geological fault zone research
- The efficiency of the "earthquake machine" in terms of fault rupture, friction, and seismic phenomena

Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting is the first book to present a systematic approach to understanding the energy changes associated with earthquakes. Solid Earth scientists, researchers and students – especially those who work in seismology, tectonophysics, rock mechanics and geodesy – will find this book an essential resource, now and into the future.


Contents

Preface
      Rachel E. Abercrombie, Art McGarr, Giulio Di Toro, and Hiroo Kanamori vii
Introduction
      Rachel E. Abercrombie, Art McGarr, Hiroo Kanamori, and Giulio Di Toro 1
Energy Partitioning During an Earthquake
      Hiroo Kanamori and Luis Rivera 3

Section I: The Measure of Radiated Energy and its Behavior
A Brief Review of Techniques Used to Estimate Radiated Seismic Energy
      Anupama Venkataraman, John Boatwright, and Gregory C. Beroza 15
The Scaling of Seismic Energy With Moment: Simple Models Compared With Observations
      William R. Walter, Kevin Mayeda, Rengin Gok, and Abraham Hofstetter 25
An Overview of the Global Variability in Radiated Energy and Apparent Stress
      George L. Choy, Art McGarr, Stephen H. Kirby, and John Boatwright 43
The Radiated Energy of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake
      Hiroo Kanamori 59
Uncertainties in Earthquake Source Spectrum Estimation Using Empirical Green Functions
      Germán A. Prieto, Robert L. Parker, Frank L. Vernon, Peter M. Shearer, and David J. Thomson 69
Source Parameters Determined From Microearthquakes in an Underground Ore Mine
      Volker Oye, Michael Roth, and Hilmar Bungum 75
Source Scaling Relationships of Microearthquakes at Parkfield, CA, Determined Using the SAFOD Pilot Hole Seismic Array
      Kazutoshi Imanishi and William L. Ellsworth 81
Effects of Methods of Attenuation Correction on Source Parameter Determination
      Eleanor Sonley and Rachel E. Abercrombie 91

Section II: The View From the Lab
Inferring Earthquake Source Properties From Laboratory Observations and the Scope of Lab Contributions to Source Physics
   N. M. Beeler 99
Relating High-Velocity Rock-Friction Experiments to Coseismic Slip in the Presence of Melts
      Giulio Di Toro, Takehiro Hirose, Stefan Nielsen, and Toshihiko Shimamoto 121
Shear Resistance Reduction due to Vibration in Simulated Fault Gouge
      Takane Hori, Hide Sakaguchi, Naoto Yoshioka, and Yoshiyuki Kaneda 135
Quantitative Characterization of Permeability Reduction Associated with Compactive Cataclastic Flow
      Wenlu Zhu 143

Section III: The View From the Field
The Habitat of Fault-Generated Pseudotachylyte: Presence vs. Absence of Friction-Melt
      Richard H. Sibson and Virginia G. Toy 153
Pseudotachylyte-Bearing Strike-Slip Faults in Mylonitic Host Rocks, Fort Foster Brittle Zone, Kittery, Maine
      Mark T. Swanson 167
Energentics of Chemical Alteration In Fault Zones and its Relationship to the Seismic Cycle
      Joseph R. Jacobs, James P. Evans, and Peter T. Kolesar 181
How Thick is a Fault? Fault Displacement-Thickness Scaling Revisited
      Zoe K. Shipton, Aisling M. Soden, James D. Kirkpatrick, Aileen M. Bright, and Rebecca J. Lunn 193
Episodic Fluid Flow in an Aseismic Overpressured Growth Fault, Northern Gulf of Mexico
      Steven Losh and Matthew Haney 199
Mechanics and Interpretations of Fault Slip
      Stephen J. Martel and Christin Shacat 207
The Missing Sinks: Slip Localization in Faults, Damage Zones, and the Seismic Energy Budget
      Zoe K. Shipton, James P. Evans, Rachel E. Abercrombie, and Emily E. Brodsky 217

Section IV: Earthquakes in Theory
Seismic Radiation From Simple Models of Earthquakes
      R. Madariaga, J.-P. Ampuero, and M. Adda-Bedia 223
On the Mechanical Work Absorbed on Faults During Earthquake Ruptures
      Massimo Cocco, Paul Spudich, and Elisa Tinti 237
Properties of Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures With Heterogeneous Stress Drop
      J.-P. Ampuero, J. Ripperger, and P. M. Mai 255
The Effects of Flash-Weakening and Damage on theEvolution of Fault Strength and Temperature
      A. W. Rempel 263
Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling
      Bruce E. Shaw 271
On Scaling of Fracture Energy and Stress Drop in Dynamic Rupture Models: Consequences for Near-Source Ground-Motions
      P.M. Mai, P. Somerville, A. Pitarka, L. Dalguer, S. Song, G. Beroza, H. Miyake, and K. Irikura 283
Mechanics of Sliding in Rate/State Friction Experiments
      J. B. Walsh 295

Section V: How Efficient is the “Earthquake Machine” and how Strong are its Working Parts?
The Strength of the San Andreas Fault: A Critical Analysis
      Christopher H. Scholz 301
What do Faults Feel? Observational Constraints on the Stresses Acting on Seismogenic Faults
      John Townend 313


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