Part 1 International environment law and the preservation of biodiversity: cultural diversity and biological diversity; global strategies for the preservation of biodiversity; elements of a global strategy for the preservation of biodiversity; the capacity of developing countries to preserve biodiversity; legal mechanisms for financial support for biodiversity conservation; economic sanctions for environmental destruction; a legal framework for a global biodiversity strategy; a global convention for the preservation of biodiversity; what kind of convention?; the most important elements of a biodiversity convention. Part 2 The effectiveness of international environmental law: necessary developments in the international environmental law system; the principle of national sovereignty; customary law and general principles of law with relevance for biodiversity; the common heritage principle and the world heritage principle; the human right to a clean environment; international crimes against the environment in general and biodiversity in particular; the status of customary international law; an environmental covenant; the enforcement of international environmental law in general; the effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms in existing legal instruments for the preservation of biodiversity. Part 3 Institutional change and the effectiveness of international law: institutional change; institutional change and the settlement of disputes; regional institutions. Part 4 The role of NGOs in the effectiveness of international environmental law: the role of NGOs in the development of international environmental law; the role of NGOs in international procedures for the enforcement of international law; the role of national courts in the enforcement of international environmental law; NGOs and legal standing. Part 5 The Hague recommenations on international environmental law.