Neotropical Lecythidaceae comprise 197 known species in 11 genera of which 137 species in six genera (Couroupita, Corythophora, Bertholletia, Couratari, Eschweilera, and Lecythis) are treated in this monograph. Eschweilera amazoniciformis Mori, E. amplexifolia Mori, E. atropetiolata Mori, E. baguensis Mori, E. beebei Mori, E. boltenii Mori, E. carinata Mori, E. chartaceifolia Mori, E. integricalyx Mori, E. jacquelyniae Mori, E. longipedicellata Mori, E. longirachis Mori, E. microcalyx Mori, E. neblinensis Mori, E. neei Mori, E. piresii Mori, E. punctata Mori, E. revoluta Mori, E. rionegrense Mori, E. roraimensis Mori, E. rodriguesiana Mori, E. rufifolia Mori, E. subcordata Mori, E. venezuelica Mori, Lecythis parvifructa Mori, L. pneumatophora Mori, L. prancei Mori, and L. serrata Mori are described as new species. Keys are provided for the known species of each genus and synonymy, descriptions, distribution maps, habitat, local names, economic uses, and herbarium voucher specimens are given for each species. Descriptions of the secondary xylem of all genera of Neotropical Lecythidaceae are presented. The utility of wood anatomy in the generic and infrageneric classification of Neotropical Lecythidaceae, the affinities of Asteranthos based on secondary xylem, and interfamilial relationships of Lecythidaceae as suggested by wood anatomy are discussed. In addition, a key to genera based on wood anatomy is provided. A complete list of vouchered wood samples available for study is included.
An update on the pollination biology of Neotropical Lecythidaceae is discussed and overviews of distribution, ecology, and conservation status of Neotropical Lecythidaceae are provided. The authors point out that, although much has been learned, there is still much to be learned about the taxonomy and ecology of Neotropical Lecythidaceae. Consequently, there remains the need for carefully prepared botanical collections, especially those which provide flowers and mature fruits from the same trees.
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