Preface; Part I. Comparative Methods: 1. The comparative method: principles and illustrations from primate socioecology A. MacLarnon; 2. Cladistics as a tool in comparative analysis K. Robson-Brown; 3. Phylogenetically independent comparisons and primate phylogeny A. Purvis and A. J. Webster; Part II. Comparative Life History and Biology: 4. Socioecology and the evolution of primate reproductive rates C. Ross; 5. Comparative ecology of post-natal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates P. C. Lee; 6. Some current ideas about the evolution of the human life history N. Blurton-Jones, K. Hawkes and J. O'Connell; 7. The evolutionary ecology of the primate brain R. Barton; 8. Sex and social evolution in primates C. van Schaik, M. A. van Noordwijk and C. L. Nunn; 9. Mating system, intrasexual competition and sexual dimorphism in primates J. M. Plavcan; Part III. Comparative Socioecology and Social Evolution: 10. Lemur social structure and convergence in primate socioecology P. Kappeler; 11. Why is female kin bonding so rare?: comparative sociality of neotropical primates K. Strier; 12. Energetics, time budgets and group size D. Williamson and R. Dunbar; 13. Ecology of sex differences in great ape foraging A. Bean; 14. The evolution of human behaviour and adaptation: missing links in comparative primate socioecology R. A. Foley; 15. Evolutionary ecology and cross-cultural comparison: the case of matrilineal descent in Sub-Saharan Africa R. Mace and C. Holden; Conclusion: socioecology and social evolution P. C. Lee; Index.